CJA 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Bivens V. Six Unknown Named Agents, Racial Profiling, Breathalyzer

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31 May 2016
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Chapter 5 and 6 – Policing: Issues and Challenges
Chapter 5 and 6 – Policing: Issues and Challenges
Police Personality and Culture
Police subculture: the set of informal values which characterize the police force as a
distinct community with a common identity
Police working personality: all aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior
evidence by police officers who have been effectively socialized into the police
subculture
- Authoritarian, cynical, conservative, dogmatic, loyal, honorable, ect…
- Some are essential for survival and effectiveness
- Some exists already within the individuals, others due to socialization
Corruption and Integrity
Police corruption: the abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain
- As small as free cups of coffee to huge monetary bribes
Definition of police corruption is unclear
Police deviance is unprofessional on-and-off duty misconduct, isolated instances of
misuse of position, improper relationship with informants or criminals, embellished
reports, attendance abuse, unauthorized disclosure of information.
Knapp Commission: committee that investigate NYC police corruption in the early
1970s
- Complex web of corruption of routine money/services exchanging hands
- “Grass eating” minor bribes/services in exchange to avoid arrest or persecution
- “Meat eating” more serious corruption, involving illicit money-making
LAPD corruption – cops involved with drug rings, stealing drugs from evidence room,
falsifying convictions
Money – The Root of Police Evil?
Deal with a lot of hostility from citizens, receive low pay which shows work isn’t valued
Low pay may be critical ingredient in corruption
Building of Police Integrity
Difficulties of controlling corruption: reluctance fellow officers, reluctance to
acknowledge existence of corruption, benefits of corruption to parties involved, lack of
victims willing to report corruption.
Ethics training is part of reframing strategy that emphasizes integrity
Law Enforcement Oath of Honor should be seen as statement of commitment to ethical
behavior
Internal Affairs: branch of police organization tasked with investigating charges of
wrongdoing involving members of the department.
- FBI and DEA involved when corruption violates federal statues
Drug Testing of Police Officers
Widespread corruption due to drugs has led to combat drug use by officers
Many departments require officers to submit routine drug testing
Drug and alcohol addictions are protected by Federal Rehabilitation Act allowing
employees the entitlement to counseling and treatment before action toward termination
can be taken
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Chapter 5 and 6 – Policing: Issues and Challenges
The Dangers of Police Work
Violence in the Line of Duty
Most officers that are shot are killed by lone suspects armed with a single weapon
Slain officers tend to be good-natured & conservative in use of physical force, failed to
wear protective vests
Decline in deaths – heightened awareness, push for body armor
Risk of Death and Infected Evidence
Biological weapons – biological agent used to threaten human life (ex: anthrax,
smallpox)
Routine criminal and accidental investigations hold potential for infection through minor
cuts/abrasions from contact with broken class, sharp edges of knives, drug implements
- Can lead to infections, diseases (AIDS, hepatitis)
Use of breathalyzer on infected person, handling of evidence, emergency baby deliveries,
attack by infected individuals in custody
Stress and Fatigue Among Police Officers
Stress is a natural component of police work
- Frustration brought on by inablitiy to be effective
- Witnessing injustice to innocent victims
- Living with a constant danger
- Denial of stress makes them potentially more likely to suffer negative stress
effects
Stress Reduction
- Humor, maintaining emotional distance, exercise, meditation, music, prayer, diet,
etc.
- Officers who can filter out extraneous stimuli and who can distinguish between
truly threatening situation and those that are benign report less stress that those
who can’t
- Family members often report feeling stress related to officer’s work.
Officer Fatigue – Weary from overtime assignments, shift work, emotional and physical
demands
Terrorism’s Impact of Policing
Devote an increased amount of time and resources preparing for possible terrorist attacks
and to gather intelligence necessary to thwart them
Responded by strengthening liaisons with other agencies including fire departments;
refining training and emergency response; increase patrol around landmarks, places of
worship, entry ports, transit systems, etc; heavy guarding public events (speeches,
parades); creating new counterterrorism divisions; employing new technologies
More regulation and requirements at local level, as well as state and federal levels
FBI – Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs), Field Intelligence Groups (FIGs)
Intelligence-Led Policing and Antiterrorism
Intelligence-Led Policing: collection and analysis of information to produce an
intelligence end product designed to inform police decision making at tactical &
strategic levels
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