Class Notes (885,074)
US (343,770)
PSU (4,925)
ANSC (55)
AN SC 431W (20)
Ott Troy (20)
Lecture 33

AN SC 431W Lecture 33: Lecture 33, 34, 35
Premium

5 Pages
80 Views

Department
Animal Science
Course Code
AN SC 431W
Professor
Ott Troy

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
HUMAN REPRODUCTION A. Menstrual Cycle 1. Events: a. Menstruation: shedding of endometrium (begin & end cycles) b. Follicular growth via FSH/estrogen c. Ovulation via LH surge d. Corpus luteum formation and growth, produces progesterone e. Endometrial growth and secretion f. Luteolysis via ovarian PGF2a 2. Cycles: a. Ovarian cycle b. Uterine cycle b.i. Proliferative phase=endometrium growing in thickness, due to estrogen/progesterone b.ii. Secretory phase=endometrium secretes uterine milk for possible conceptus b.iii. Menses=if no pregnancy, shed endometrial lining 3. Phases a. Follicular: dominated by estrogen b. Luteal phase: dominated by progesterone 4. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) caused by large drop in progesterone after luteolysis, occurs before menses 5. Birth control methods: all release progestin, menses occurs during withdrawal/placebo period a. Daily pill b. Transdermal patch c. Injection d. Intravaginal ring B. Assisted Reproductive Technologies a. Procedures that unite oocyte and sperm outside body to make embryo, then placed in female to continue gestation b. Helps infertile couples conceive c. Methods: c.i. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): collect semen, evaluate sperm, stimulate ovulation, prepare oocyte. Allow sperm to naturally fertilize c.ii. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): manually inject sperm into oocyte, if male has low sperm count d. Oocytes can be flushed out after ovulation OR aspirated by needle and ultrasound d.i. Fertilized embryo then inserted into woman’s uterus C. Reproductive Aging a. Menopause=reproductive aging in women, no more menstrual periods a.i. Occurs 45-50 years of age a.ii. Depletion of oocytes with age (300,000 at puberty0 at menopause) a.iii. After 37 years, rate of atresia increases and follicles deplete rapidly a.iv. Hormones change during menopause: a.iv.1. Decreased Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH): controls recruitment of primary follicles, promotes atresia. Low AMH=more follicles recruited for atresia a.iv.2. Increased FSH/LH a.iv.3. Decreased progesterone a.iv.4. Decreased estrogen/inhibin a.v. Estrogen deficiency causes… a.v.1. Hot flashes a.v.2. Atrophy a.v.3. Decreased cognitive function a.v.4. Decreased reproductive secretions a.v.5. Increased fat mass b. Andropause=reproductive aging in men b.i. Decreased libido b.ii. Decreased muscle mass & bone density b.iii. Increased fat mass b.iv. Decreased sperm production & testosterone REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY A. The Immune System is Significant in Reproduction a.i.1. T lymphocytes=subset of white blood cells a.i.1.a. CD8+ cytotoxic killer cells a.i.1.b. CD4+ helper cells a.i.1.b.i. Regulatory T cells are subset of CD4+ helper T cell family a.i.2. Tolerance vs. Inflammation a.i.2.a. How can a mother gestate an antigenically distinct embryo in her uterus? a.i.2.a.i. Embryo is ½ paternal DNAforeign to mother a.i.2.b. During pregnancy, paternal proteins awaken mother’s immune system but does not mount an attack a.i.2.c. Sir Peter Brian Medawar started field of reproductive immunology ~1960 a.i.2.c.i. Offered potential solutions to immunological problem with pregnancy a.i.2.c.ii. Theories for why the fetus does not provoke an immune response in mother: a.i.2.c.ii.1. Anatomical separation of fetus from mother (placenta) a.i.2.c.ii.2. The antigenic immaturity of the fetus allows it to “hide” and not produce antigens
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit