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Lecture 33

AN SC 431W Lecture 33: Lecture 33, 34, 35
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Department
Animal Science
Course Code
AN SC 431W
Professor
Ott Troy

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HUMAN REPRODUCTION
A. Menstrual Cycle
1. Events:
a. Menstruation: shedding of endometrium (begin & end cycles)
b. Follicular growth via FSH/estrogen
c. Ovulation via LH surge
d. Corpus luteum formation and growth, produces progesterone
e. Endometrial growth and secretion
f. Luteolysis via ovarian PGF2a
2. Cycles:
a. Ovarian cycle
b. Uterine cycle
i. Proliferative phase=endometrium growing in thickness, due to
estrogen/progesterone
ii. Secretory phase=endometrium secretes uterine milk for possible
conceptus
iii. Menses=if no pregnancy, shed endometrial lining
3. Phases
a. Follicular: dominated by estrogen
b. Luteal phase: dominated by progesterone
4. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) caused by large drop in progesterone after luteolysis,
occurs before menses
5. Birth control methods: all release progestin, menses occurs during
withdrawal/placebo period
a. Daily pill
b. Transdermal patch
c. Injection
d. Intravaginal ring
B. Assisted Reproductive Technologies
a. Procedures that unite oocyte and sperm outside body to make embryo, then placed
in female to continue gestation
b. Helps infertile couples conceive
c. Methods:
i. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): collect semen, evaluate sperm, stimulate
ovulation, prepare oocyte. Allow sperm to naturally fertilize
ii. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): manually inject sperm into
oocyte, if male has low sperm count
d. Oocytes can be flushed out after ovulation OR aspirated by needle and ultrasound
i. Fertilized embryo then inserted into woman’s uterus
C. Reproductive Aging
a. Menopause=reproductive aging in women, no more menstrual periods
i. Occurs 45-50 years of age
ii. Depletion of oocytes with age (300,000 at puberty0 at menopause)
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iii. After 37 years, rate of atresia increases and follicles deplete rapidly
iv. Hormones change during menopause:
1. Decreased Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH): controls recruitment
of primary follicles, promotes atresia. Low AMH=more follicles
recruited for atresia
2. Increased FSH/LH
3. Decreased progesterone
4. Decreased estrogen/inhibin
v. Estrogen deficiency causes…
1. Hot flashes
2. Atrophy
3. Decreased cognitive function
4. Decreased reproductive secretions
5. Increased fat mass
b. Andropause=reproductive aging in men
i. Decreased libido
ii. Decreased muscle mass & bone density
iii. Increased fat mass
iv. Decreased sperm production & testosterone
REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY
A. The Immune System is Significant in Reproduction
1. T lymphocytes=subset of white blood cells
a. CD8+ cytotoxic killer cells
b. CD4+ helper cells
i. Regulatory T cells are subset of CD4+ helper T cell family
2. Tolerance vs. Inflammation
a. How can a mother gestate an antigenically distinct embryo in her uterus?
i. Embryo is ½ paternal DNAforeign to mother
b. During pregnancy, paternal proteins awaken mother’s immune system but
does not mount an attack
c. Sir Peter Brian Medawar started field of reproductive immunology ~1960
i. Offered potential solutions to immunological problem with
pregnancy
ii. Theories for why the fetus does not provoke an immune response in
mother:
1. Anatomical separation of fetus from mother (placenta)
2. The antigenic immaturity of the fetus allows it to “hide” and not
produce antigens
3. The immunological indolence/inertness of the mother,
suppresses her immune system
B. Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
1. Innate: built into system, deals with most diseases
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Description
HUMAN REPRODUCTION A. Menstrual Cycle 1. Events: a. Menstruation: shedding of endometrium (begin & end cycles) b. Follicular growth via FSH/estrogen c. Ovulation via LH surge d. Corpus luteum formation and growth, produces progesterone e. Endometrial growth and secretion f. Luteolysis via ovarian PGF2a 2. Cycles: a. Ovarian cycle b. Uterine cycle b.i. Proliferative phase=endometrium growing in thickness, due to estrogen/progesterone b.ii. Secretory phase=endometrium secretes uterine milk for possible conceptus b.iii. Menses=if no pregnancy, shed endometrial lining 3. Phases a. Follicular: dominated by estrogen b. Luteal phase: dominated by progesterone 4. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) caused by large drop in progesterone after luteolysis, occurs before menses 5. Birth control methods: all release progestin, menses occurs during withdrawal/placebo period a. Daily pill b. Transdermal patch c. Injection d. Intravaginal ring B. Assisted Reproductive Technologies a. Procedures that unite oocyte and sperm outside body to make embryo, then placed in female to continue gestation b. Helps infertile couples conceive c. Methods: c.i. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): collect semen, evaluate sperm, stimulate ovulation, prepare oocyte. Allow sperm to naturally fertilize c.ii. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): manually inject sperm into oocyte, if male has low sperm count d. Oocytes can be flushed out after ovulation OR aspirated by needle and ultrasound d.i. Fertilized embryo then inserted into woman’s uterus C. Reproductive Aging a. Menopause=reproductive aging in women, no more menstrual periods a.i. Occurs 45-50 years of age a.ii. Depletion of oocytes with age (300,000 at puberty0 at menopause) a.iii. After 37 years, rate of atresia increases and follicles deplete rapidly a.iv. Hormones change during menopause: a.iv.1. Decreased Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH): controls recruitment of primary follicles, promotes atresia. Low AMH=more follicles recruited for atresia a.iv.2. Increased FSH/LH a.iv.3. Decreased progesterone a.iv.4. Decreased estrogen/inhibin a.v. Estrogen deficiency causes… a.v.1. Hot flashes a.v.2. Atrophy a.v.3. Decreased cognitive function a.v.4. Decreased reproductive secretions a.v.5. Increased fat mass b. Andropause=reproductive aging in men b.i. Decreased libido b.ii. Decreased muscle mass & bone density b.iii. Increased fat mass b.iv. Decreased sperm production & testosterone REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY A. The Immune System is Significant in Reproduction a.i.1. T lymphocytes=subset of white blood cells a.i.1.a. CD8+ cytotoxic killer cells a.i.1.b. CD4+ helper cells a.i.1.b.i. Regulatory T cells are subset of CD4+ helper T cell family a.i.2. Tolerance vs. Inflammation a.i.2.a. How can a mother gestate an antigenically distinct embryo in her uterus? a.i.2.a.i. Embryo is ½ paternal DNAforeign to mother a.i.2.b. During pregnancy, paternal proteins awaken mother’s immune system but does not mount an attack a.i.2.c. Sir Peter Brian Medawar started field of reproductive immunology ~1960 a.i.2.c.i. Offered potential solutions to immunological problem with pregnancy a.i.2.c.ii. Theories for why the fetus does not provoke an immune response in mother: a.i.2.c.ii.1. Anatomical separation of fetus from mother (placenta) a.i.2.c.ii.2. The antigenic immaturity of the fetus allows it to “hide” and not produce antigens
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