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ANTH 009

Anthropology 009 Professor Bondar Date: / / . Types of Societies I. Simple vs. Complex Societies A. Simple- Egalitarian 1. Minimal inherited social status B. Complex- Chiefdoms → States/Civilizations Side Note: The Old World consists of Asia, Europe, and 1. Social classes: inherited social status Africa. II. Egalitarian Societies A. Subsistence 1. Hunting 2. Foraging 3. Domesticates 4. Horticulture B. Mobile-to-sedentary 1. Depends on subsistence; rarely fully sedentary C. Group size 1. 100-3,000 people organized around extended family groups D. Social Structure 1. Egalitarian- minimal inherited status E. Leadership 1. Permanent positions determined by political skills and prestige of individual; rules by consensus i. What are some ways an individual can earn or increase his/her prestige? a. Strong/brave warrior b. Wealth c. Luck/ manipulation of the supernatural (shaman) d. Ability to make good/favorable decisions ~  1 ~ Anthropology 009 Professor Bondar Date: / / . e. Intelligence f. Commanding/charismatic presence F. Part-time Specialists 1. Some individuals become the group expert in specific tasks G. Violence 1. Often tit-for-tat raids between neighboring kin-groups, villages, or tribes III. Origins of Civilization A. Urbanism (Childe) 1. Economic classes and complexity led to cities: The “Urban Revolution” B. Control of Water (Wittfogel) 1. Irrigation led to control, surplus, and population growth i. Control of water equals power and influence Farmer → a. Construction Large River b. Maintenance c. Schedule (Who gets water when?) ← Irrigation ditch C. Trade (Renfrew) 1. Long-distance interaction leads to complexity (i.e. stone [obsidian] is only found in certain places and is obtained mostly through trade) D. Military Conquest (Carneiro) 1. Alliance and conquest consolidates power E. Ecology (Steward) & Systems (Flannery) 1. Natural environment determines the evolution of different parts of society F. Population Pressure (Boserup) 1. Complexity is response to increasing numbers of people IV. Cultural Chronology A. Upper Paleolithic Period (12,000 B.C. +) 1. Most recent part of the ancient stone age ~ 2 ~ Anthropology 009 Professor Bondar Date: / / . 2. Egalitarian Ice Age i. Mobile hunter-gatherers ii. Cave Art a. Only associated with homo sapiens b. France and Spain: 1. Grotte Chauvet i. Older than 30,000 years Side Note: Lithic = Stone Paleo = Ancient Meso = Middle Neo = New Chalco = Copper ii. Images include stylized dots, human handprints, ???? 2. Lascaux: 25-13,000 B.C. c. Function or Purpose 1. Ritual 2. Education 3. Documentation of history 4. Emotional connection to events 5. Mark territorial boundaries 6. No definite answer d. Shaman are believed to have control over supernatural powers e. Sympathetic magic- If you illustrate the process of a successful hunt, it might bring about favorable outcomes (similar concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy) Date: / / . B. Mesolithic (Epipaleolithic) Period (12,000 – 18,000 B.C.) ~ 3 ~ Anthropology 009 Professor Bondar Date: / / . 1. Post-glacial hunters and gatherers begin relying increasingly on plants 2. Göbekli Tepe: Earliest monumental architecture, apparently predating domestication (located in the “Fertile Crescent”) i. Megalithic construction: 10-50 ton stone pillars moved 100-500 meters to the site 3. Younger Dryas: ~ 10,800 – 9,600 B.C. 4. Domestication- Plants and animals that require human activity to survive Reduced mobility (due to location of water supply) Increased use of domesticates Increased population pressure (competition for resources) Dryer Environment Sedentary farming communities i. The vicious circle of domestication ~ 4  ~ Anthropology 009 Professor Bondar Date: / / . ii. Some wild species respond positively to human manipulation of the environment a. Middle East: Wheat, barley, oats, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, cats, dogs, etc. b. East Asia: Rice, millet, pigs, chickens, camels, water buffalo, etc. c. All of these crops are grasses that produce seeds that can be dried for storage 5. Agriculture- Human activity that helps edible plant species to grow i. Fertile Crescent- area in the Middle East where domestication first occurs; wild ancestors of wheat, barley, cattle (aurochs- wild/extinct), sheep, etc. live and grow here a. Surrounded by desert b. Higher elevation → Cooler temperatures → Abundant rainfall ii. Lavant- Coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean consisting of what are now Lebanon, Syria, and Israel iii. Natufians- Semi-sedentary Epipaleolithic groups subsisting on wild grains; Large band-level societies (up to 100 people per settlement) Date: / / . C. Neolithic Period (9,000 – 6,000 B.C.) 1. Characterized by farming villages (domestication), and pottery later 2. Jericho: (8,500 – 7,300 B.C.) Natufian camp in Palestine located adjacent to an oasis; grows into one of the earliest Neolithic villages
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