STAT 200 Lesson 2 Notes: Turning Data Into Information

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Pennsylvania State University
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Mengzhao Gao

STAT 200 Elementary Statistics Lesson 2 Turning Data Into Information  Distribution- shows a variable’s pattern of variation, as given by the values of the variables and their frequencies  Histograms- represent frequencies by area and not height  Stem-and-leaf plot- consists of a vertical list of stems after which are recorded a horizontal list of one-digit leaves  Symmetric- similar on both sides  Skewed-values are more spread out on one side of the center than the other  Unimodal- when there is one prominent peak in a graph’s distribution  Bimodal- when there are two prominent peaks in a graph’s distribution  Mean-usual numeric average, calculated as the sum of the data values divided by the number of values  Median- middle data value for an odd number of observations, after the sample has been ordered from smallest to largesse. The average of the middle two values if even number in the sample.  Range- found by subtracting the minimum value from the largest value  First quartile (Q1)- the middle of the values below the median  Third quartile (Q3)- the middle of the values above the median  IQR (Interquartile range)- found by subtracting Q1 from Q3  Five number summary- consists of minimum and maximum values, Q1 and Q3, and the
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