BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ribulose, Structural Formula, Starch

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BIOL110Lecture2Macromolecules
Macromolecules
● Largeorganiccompounds
○ Carbohydrates,lipids,proteins,nucleicacids
● Playimportantrolesinenergystorageandstructure
Carbohydrates
● HaveabasicstructurewrittenasC(H
2
O)
n
○ Ex:GlucosehasthethestructuralformulaC
6
H
12
O
6
● Functionforenergystorage(starch),asstructuralmolecules(cellulose),andin
informationstorageinnucleicacids
● Monosaccharidesaresimplesugars
○ Ex:glucose,fructose,ribose,galactose,ribulose
● Disaccharidesaresugarsformedbyacondensationreactionbetweentwo
monosaccharides
○ Ex:Condensationsynthesisbetweentwoglucoseformsamaltose
● Polysaccharidescanconsistofuptoseveralthousandmonomersofsimplesugars
● NOTE:oseisusedtodescribeallcarbohydrates
● Excesssugarsarestoredinliverintheformofglycogenbyanimals
● Starchvs.cellulose
○ Starchusesalphaformofglucose
○ Celluloseusesbetaformofglucose
■ Wedon’tdigestcellulosebecausewedon’thavethebondstobreakit
Proteins
● Functionallyandstructurallydiverse
○ Mainbiologicalfunctionsarestructural,mechanical,andenzymatic
● Basicmonomerofproteinsareaminoacids
○ Generalstructureisacarbonattachedtoanaminogroup(NH
2
),acarboxylgroup
(COOH),ahydrogen,andan“R”group
○ Therearetwentydifferent“R”groupsandthus20differentaminoacids
● Polypeptidesarepolymersofaminoacids
○ Cantakeondifferentlevelsofstructure:
■ Primarysequenceofaminoacids
■ Secondaryalphahelices,betapleatedsheets→hydrogenbondingbtR
groups
■ Tertiaryfurtherfoldingoftheprotein→hydrophobic/hydrophilic
interactions
■ Quaternarymorethanonepolypeptidejoinedtogether
● Realworldexample:SickleCellAnemia
○ Thisdiseaseresultsinabnormalproductionofhemoglobin→misshapenred
bloodcells
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