BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Monera, Eukaryote, Protist

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11 Sep 2015
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BIOL110Lecture6DiversityofLife
DiversityofLife
● Earthhasbeenalivingplanetforabout4billionyears
○ About1.8millionspecieshavebeendescribedsofar
○ Estimated10100millionspecieslivingtoday
● AlllifecomesfromacommonancestorcalledtheLUCA(lastuniversalcommon
ancestor)about3.5billionyearsago
Classification
● Simply,lifeisdividedintoprokaryotes(thosewithoutnuclei)andeukaryotes(thosewith
nuclei)
● Lifecanalsobeclassifiedbyfivekingdoms:Monera,Protista,Plantae,Fungi,and
Animalia
○ Thissystemisnolongerused
● Lifeisdiversifiedintothreemajordomains:Bacteria,Archaea,andEukarya
○ BacteriaandArchaeahavemoresimplecellscalledprokaryotes
○ Eukaryahavemorecomplexcellscalledeukaryotes
○ Thisisthemostcurrenttaxonomicscheme
IntroductiontoArchaea
● Archaea
○ Havesomefeaturesthataremoreeukaryoticthanprokaryotic
○ Sometimesreferredtoasextremophilesliveinextremeenvironments
■ Ex:hotsprings,saltponds,hydrothermalvents
○ Lackpeptidoglycanproducesuniquecellmembranelipids
○ Possessintrons(DNA/RNAthatdonotcodeforproteins)
BasicFeaturesofProkaryotes
● Lackofmembraneboundnucleiandothermembraneboundorganelles
● Generallylesssubcellularspecialization
● About15micronsinsize(comparedtothe10100micronsofeukaryotes)
● Classifiedbyshape
○ Coccusaresphericalshaped
○ Bacillusarerodshaped
○ Spirillumarehelicalshaped
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