CAMS 045 Lecture 7: CAMS - Athena

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Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies
CAMS 045
Stephen Wheeler

Athena ● Birth ○ Homeric hymn 28; theogony ● Zeus mated with Metis ■ Goddess of wisdom ○ Zeus swallowed her while she was still with child because he was afraid the child would overthrow him ○ Zeus then had a splitting headache ■ Hephaestus opens head with axe ■ Athena is born in full array ● Prowess in battle ● Skilled in strategy and tactics of war ● Goddess of the citadel (acropolis) ○ High part of city ● Associated with Nike, goddess of victory Appearance ● Armed warrior ○ Helmet ○ Aegis ■ Invincible covering ■ Stare that startles the enemy ■ Surrounded by snakes ○ Shield ○ Spear ● Masculinity of virgin nature ● Attributes ○ “Gray eyed” ○ Owl ○ Olive tree ○ Snake ■ Chthonic ● Woman’s deity ○ Goddess of weaving ■ Spinning thread ■ Loom ○ Arete “excellence of a women” ○ Cunning and resourceful Cult Center ● Patron deity of athens and attica ● Famous temple in athens ○ Athena parthenos ○ The parthenon ○ Located on athenian acropolis Parthenon ● Designed by Pheidias ● Housed chryselephantine statue of athena ● History and significance? ○ Representation of the divine order of the gods on earth ○ Persians destroyed the statue of athena Sculpture of Parthenon ● Cult statue in cella ● Pedimental sculpture ● Doric frieze ○ 92 metopes ● Ionic frieze ○ Continuous ○ Round outerwall of cella ● Elgin marbles Pericles ● Rebuilt parthenon ○ Destroyed by persians in 480 BCE, between 447 and 438 BCE ● Commemorates athenian victory in persian War
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