Section B Notes Part 1 Communication Modes-Light Tech Systems

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Communication Sciences and Disorders
CSD 451
Jennifer Davis

II. COMMUNICATION MODES A. Communication Modes • Vocal Mode --use of natural speech, vocalizations, to produce or receive messages • Gestural Mode 1* the use of natural gestures and/or sign language, sign systems, and finger spelling to produce or receive messages • Graphic Mode 2* the use of two- and/or three-dimensional symbols to represent objects/events and related concepts to produce or receive messages • Examples of Standard Communication Techniques o What communication techniques did you see in the video? How are they classified and why?  Intense vocalization-nonverbal and vocal  Crying-nonverbal and vocal  Gesturing-non vocal and nonverbal  Words on the computer-non vocal and verbal o What does this tell us about our standard, natural communication?  We use Multimodal communication • Using many different things to communicate,AAC is multimodal just as we are B. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Modes 1* Unaided communication 1* does not require external objects 1* Vocal mode 2* Gestural mode 2* Aided communication 2* involves the presence of an external physical object (paper and pencil, computer, picture book) 3* graphic mode (using symbols) III. SYMBOLS 1* Spoken, graphic, or manual representations of ideas, affective states, objects, actions, people, relationships, and events. 2* The meaning must be known to both the sender and the receiver. 3* Symbols vary in regard to “guessability” Guessability 1* Less guessable symbols require more teaching opportunities to establish acquisition with both typically-developing preschoolers and individuals with developmental disabilities. 2* No single collection of symbols is far superior to other available collections in terms of guessability. 3* Interventionists should consider using symbols from a variety of symbol dictionaries IV. UNAIDED AAC SYSTEMS/GESTURAL COMMUNICATION 1. Includes techniques that do not require the use of an external object. 2. Necessitates movement of the body, but does not require access to equipment or devices separate from the body 3. Symbols are “dynamic” • are not enduring and frequently involve movement or change • involve temporal processing o Why?  Must remember what is said in order to understand it 4. Primary communication methods in this category include: • Vocalizations and speech • Gestures and Body Language • Sign languages, sign systems Advantages: 1. Portability—don’t have to carry anything 2. Messages can be conveyed with speed and efficiency if the individual is communicating to others who are familiar with the unaided symbols. Disadvantages: 1. Naturally occurring gestures, body language, and vocalizations are finite sets that do not offer a wide range of messages. 2. Require a certain level of physical skill/motor ability. 3. All communication partners must be familiar with the system. A. Vocalizations and Speech • Vocalizations provide an effective means for quick, general intent to be communicated. • When paired with changes in facial expressions and body language, the meanings can be quite specific. • Speech is one of the most effective means of unaided communication 1. Fast, portable and efficient 2. Messages can be conveyed across considerable distance. 3. Few limitations to the messages that can be produced TYPES OF GESTURES • Natural gestures • Sign languages • Sign systems • Hand cued systems • Fingerspelling B. Natural gestures • Commonly understood movements; hands, arms, and bodily movements including eye gaze and facial expressions • not constrained by linguistic rules (no morphology, no rules how to combine things) • may be conventional or idiosyncratic (wave is conventional vs. something more made up and not as easy to understand) • recognition of gestures is highly dependent upon shared cultural experiences (cross cultural vs. one culture) (pointing inAmerica is okay vs. other cultures think this is offensive) (come here gesture inAmerica is okay, Phillipines is very demeaning and only used for dogs) • readily recognizable messages (waving) • relatively simple production • messages are limited to the here and now • greater responsibility on the communicative partner to interpret messages correctly (not mutual, must watch and remember what things means, remembering signs, recognizing it) • may not be feasible for those with severe motor impairments C. Sign Languages and Sign Systems • Conventionalized (have a system) gestures with: •relatively abstract meanings (some signs are easier to guess than others) • specific rules for production • Are NOT universal/differences occur across countr
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