I. PERSONAL INFLUENCE
A.What is personal influence?
1. The personal influence study was in Decatur, IL in 1945.
2. This was a study with 800 women who were asked how did they get all their media/
3. In this process, there was a constant pattern of identifying certain individuals that the
women kept mentioning, and declared them their “leaders.
4. This is called the TWO-STEP FLOW, when you get your news from a person who gets
their news from the direct source (the news).
B. Two-step flow & Opinion Leaders
1. Media does play a role in our lives.
2. There is info going to the individuals who are considered the “opinion leaders”, who
reinstate that news to others.
3. With the opinion leaders, the followers will listen to their side or opinion of the story
and will side with their opinion, without creating their own.
1. Weimann tested the two-step flow in the 80’s-90’s to see if it had the same affect.
2. His results showed that the markets targeted celebs or famous “opinion leaders” to get
ordinary people to buy the product.
3. Weimann went to Israel and Germany to has the same question as the two-step process,
and there too, had the same result.
4. Clearly, the people opinion leaders are the ones many people trust and are easily
II. OTHER STUDIES
A. Shah and Scheufele
1. In 2006, S & S looked form media, creating involvement.
2. This study showed a reciprocal effect. When people are leaders when they have a lot of
info, they will not stop seeking the info.
B. Nisbet and Kotcher
1. In 2009, N & K attempted to reach opinion leaders to influence climate attitudes.
2. There were minimal outcomes, but the application of theory.
C.Lyons and Henderson
1. In 2005, L & H studied the opinion leaders and their existence online.
2. This study was to show if the opinion leaders were found on online media sites.
3. The opinion leaders online are those who are constantly posting and subscribing to
D.Bertrandias and Goldsmith
1. In 2006, B & G tested the opinion leaders in fashion. 9-12-13 T
2. The study suggested that the public look toward opinion leaders to give them the latest
E. Minimal Effects with some studies.
1. Out of the social influence, some people said that media has minimal effect.
2. Klapper suggested that people contact their closer friends and family for information