I. USES AND GRATIFICATION
1. Individuals select media based on what they want from the media (gratification).
2. Do we want to learn from the media? Do we want to waste time? Are we bored?
3. Individuals select media based on their view about media’s abilities to fulfill our desires
4. Individuals select media based on habit.
5. Individuals select media based on convenience, what is closer to you, your phone or the
6. Individuals select media based on technological proficiency. Do you understand how to
use the technology that gives you your media?
7. Individuals select media based on contextual factors, (the setting around you). If you
are with friends and 2/3’s of your friends want to watch NFL and you are the only one
that wants MLB, you are out numbered.
B. Specific Gratifications
1. Learning, including surveillance. We use media to learn about new information.
People use surveillance, include neighbors who read the daily newspaper to learn
about events in town.
2. Companionship, including interpersonal factors. We use media to stay social with
3. Arousal, sensation seeking, and relaxation. If you come home from a bad day, you
want to watch something calming to ease your mood. If you are bored, you want
something excited to get you motivated.
4. Escape. If you are trying to avoid your term paper you need to write in the next few
hours, you turn to social media to escape from your tasks.
5. Passing the time. This is a bit like the habit example. Passing the time is when you
just want to shut down for awhile and do nothing with your environment.
II. PARASOCIAL INTERACTION
A. Ways of Parasocial Interaction
1. Parasocial interactions treat mediated figures as social connections with characters,
celebrities, and sport players/teams.
2. This is an example of fans interaction with the famous people. We have to personal or
emotional attachment with the star, but we are acting like it.
3. An example is a crazy fan at a sporting game trying to yell, annoy, or influence the