I. IMPORTANT FIGURES
1. Lippmann was a writer and a critic.
2. He believed that the public was generally not interested of processing detailed news.
3. Lippmann discussed cognitive shortcuts throughout his life.
4. He wrote “The Phantom Public”
5. Lippmann thought the public wasn’t well informed of the media world.
6. He wanted the public to get engaged with the media.
7. Lippmann’s primary function was to get the media to shape people’s opinions.
B. John Dewey
1. Dewey believed in value of education and the ability of educated public contribution
positively to democracy.
2. He acknowledged power of the elites but felt that the public could overcome.
3. Dewey felt that other entertainments were distracting from the other news.
4. He published “The Public and Its Problems”, a book in response of Lippmann’s.
5. Dewey said that the media was the tool to shape opinions for the better.
1. Bernays was an early figure in advertising and public relations.
2. He employed psychological theories.
3. Bernays advocated influencing elites
4. He published “propaganda” advocating for manipulation of the public.
5. Bernays did “administrative” works. He wanted to help his clients.
II. MEDIA IN THE WAR
A. Magic Bullet Prospective
1. This media contains a clear persuative message
2. The message is directly absorbed by the audience
3. All the members of the Magic Bullet Perspective study should respond in a similar way
4. If the tested group already has a strong opinion, the opinion will not change. Therefore
this is a bad sample to test. Example,: voting for a president.
B. War of the Worlds Research
1. This test started on October 30 , 1938 in Mercury Theatre.
2. The study was