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History 10 Lecture Notes

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HIST 010
Iwona Dorabiala

August24 20111 Homo habilis125 million years ago2Discovered in the 1960s3Larger brain4Simple stone tools5Cooperationlived in smaller groups and worked together better6Communicationgestures and vocal criesHomoA word used by scientists to differentiate between prehuman and true human species1Homo Erg aster working manaLived in eastern and southern Africab2014 million years agocDiscovered at lake turkana Kenya 1984dLarger brain than homo habiliseMore diverse and sophisticated stone toolsfCommunicationgFirehDirect ancestor of modern humans2Homo Erectus standing mana18 million years agobDiscovered in 1891 java IndonesiacLarger than homo habilisdBrain23 the size of our braineMore complex and widespread tool culturehand axes cleavers scrapersfHuntergatherergCavedwellerhMigrated out of Africa between 1 and 2 million years agoiNorthern Africa middle east south and southeast Asia china Europe AustraliaiControlled fire 500000250000 years agojCared for the old and weak3Homo sapiens wise manaEmerged in Africa about 200000 years agobLeft Africa about 100000 years agoiAsia Europe Australia the AmericascLarger brainsdCommunicationeMore complex and widespread tool culturefHuntergatherergCaves sheltershSmall egalitarian bandsman and women were equal4Homo neanderthalensisaC 200000c 30000 BCbFound in the feldhofer cave of the neander valley in Germany in 1856cSettled in western afroEurasiadBrainslightly larger than that of modern humanseBulky torso short arms and legsfCapable of communication probably lacked spoken languagegLived in small groups collected food and hunted preyhMade tools knifes spearheads chisels small drills and scrapersiLived in caves tentshutsjUsed to hide to make clotheskCared for the old and weaklBuried the deadmVanished5CroMagnon homo sapiens early homo sapiens sapiensaC 40000 BCc 10000 BCbDiscovered in 1868 at CroMagnon in village of les eyzies in FrancecVirtually identical to modern man tall muscular and slightly more robustdHighly intelligent cognitive and language abilitieseSkilled hunters toolmakers and artists61960aAustralopithecus iibHomo erectusiicHomo sapiens7ArtsaCave paintingbSculptureiWomen were sculpted fat because fertility was very important Most women sculptures were pregnantASettled agricultureaApplication of human labor and tools to a fixed plot of land for more than gone growing cyclebEntails the changeover from a hunting and gathering lifestyle to one based on agriculture which requires staying in one place until the soil has been exhaustedBDomesticationaBringing a wild animal or plant under human controlCPastoralismaHerding and breeding animals as a primary economic activityb5500 BCDNomadic PastoralismaMovement of domesticated animals from place to place to find fresh pasturesETranshumanceaSeasonal movement of livestock between mountain and lowland pastures1Southwest Asia1Southwest AsiaaFertile crescentbRich soils and regular rainfallcLand between Tigris and Euphrates riverssettled by small communitiesdSeedsselected and stored for later planting eLarge mammals domesticated goats sheep pigs cattlefHorsescame to the area from steppersgc 5500 BCflood and drought prevented agricultural advances in the area iEarly attempts to control rivers2East Asiaac 13000 BCenvironmental changes melting glaciersiJapanese island formediiRiver basins and lakesformed in AsiaiiiLarge animalsbecame extinctbYellow and Yangzi river valleysbecame heavily populatedcStaple cropsiRicedomesticated by 6500 BC southiiMilletdomesticated by 5500BC northdChina and Japandeveloped potteryeGrain tools and technical knowledgespread throughout east Asia3EuropeaDomestication ideas came from other areasbAgriculture and village life in Europe developed in two areasiNorthern rim of Mediterranean seaiiGreece the Balkans and along Danube and Rhine river valleyscMain crops wheat and barley later olives and grapeproducing vinesdMain herded animals4The AmericasaClimatic changesc 12000 BCbSlower transition to agriculture diversity and isolationcMost communities adopted settled agriculture without abandoning basic survival strategies of hunting and gatheringdClovisthe earliest wellestablished human culture in the north American continent 11500 BCeDomestication of animalsiAndean highlandsguinea pigsfDomestication of plantsiMaize squash beans1Maizenot fully domesticated until 2000 BC
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