3. English Social History & Migration to America.docx

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HIST 020

History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . English Social History & Migration to America I. First English Exploration A. 1497- John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) 1. From Genoa (Italian) 2. He was an excellent sailor 3. He goal was to find a way through the land mass (The “New World”). 4. The land he discovered was called The New Founde Lande, which was later shortened to Newfoundland. 5. When he couldn’t find a way through he went back to England. 6. England insisted he continue his search. He left for The “New World” and was never seen or heard from again. 7. Significance: He laid the bases for the English claim for North America II. Social & Economic changes: Towards Colonization (didn’t occur until the late 1600’s) A. Frequent European Wars (1500’s) 1. Both frequent and expensive 2. Most of them occurred with Spain B. Religious Crises (1500’s) 1. Stabilizes a little in the 1600’s C. Changed English economic bases 1. Old core of economy was farming (before 1500’s) 2. Shifts from agriculture to wool in the 1600’s i. People stop growing crops, and start raising sheep ii. Due to grazing land, there is less land available to grow crops on iii. People lose their jobs (as farmhands) and are forced to beg or steal iv. Population is growing massively a. 1425- approx. 3 million people b. 1603- approx. 9 million people ~ 1 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . v. More people, less food, less work. vi. Many people decide to leave and come to America III. “Push” and “Pull” Factors to Colonization 1. Push A. Push Factors: - a 1. Social Pressures nega i. Land means EVERYTHING! tive a. Status b. Power c. Wealth d. And titles (Lord, Duke, Baron, etc.) ii. Food and Rent prices go up and many people (even those that have jobs) cannot afford to live th iii. 25-50% of the population lives in poverty at the end of the 15 century a. Most of the people in poverty are ages 15-25 1. They decide to make the voyage to America Date: / / . b. Reasons for Poverty 1. Unemployed 2. Underemployed (low wages/little money) 3. Starving in the streets iv. Primogeniture- The exclusive right of the first born son to inherit the land and everything else form his father (aristocrats- wealthy land owners) a. The younger son or sons get nothing and have a reason to leave 1. The first ships that brought immigrants were mostly aristocrats, however; aristocrats made up only 1- 2% of all the immigrants that came to America. 2. Business Interests i. 1550’s-1650’s- Cloth industry is on the decline ~ 2 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . a. More competition means less business (supply and demand) 1. People lose jobs and want to leave (they make up most of the next immigrants after the aristocrats) b. Wars that occurred in the 1550’s hurt the economy 3. Mercantilism- The belief that there is a limited amount of wealth in the world, so for a country to grow rich, it is always at the expense of another country, therefore you must take as much wealth as possible into your country and export as little as possible. i. This gives countries the incentive to establish colonies a. Sell their own product to the colonies b. Extract raw materials from the colonies c. Reduce population in homeland by sending people to the colonies ii. Colonial markets a. In England’s case, they use natural resources (mostly wood) to build ships for their navy, etc. B. Pull Factors: 1. Images of America i. Have no real concept of what America is (don’t know size or contents) ii. Their only experience in colonization is with the Irish a. Treated Irish like savages b. Treated Native Americans the same way iii. No idea how difficult it would be to live in America 2. Promotional Literature i. America was depicted as a “Land of paradise” on one hand and a “Land of savagery” on the other. a. “Land of Paradise”- Intentional, found in literature ~ 3 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . b. “Land of Savagery”- Unintentional, word of mouth from sailors 1. This was attractive to some people (i.e. The Puritans) C. Religious Motives (Push &
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