4. Settling the Chesapeake, 1606-1624.docx

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HIST 020

History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . Settling the Chesapeake, 1606-1624 I. Four General Characteristics A. Business venture 1. Not run by government 2. Done for business profit 3. Colonists were not prepared 4. Colony DOES survive despite complications B. Colonies develop their own sense of independence 1. Establish their own governments 2. Run businesses, etc. C. English are against blending with the Native Americans 1. They want nothing to do with each other 2. English transplantation- theoretically take a colony from England and stick it in the New World D. NOTHING goes according to plan II. Virginia, 1606-1610 A. London Company- business venture 1. King James issues a charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company i. Plymouth Company goes out of business immediately 2. The London Company is composed of “knights, gentlemen, merchants, and other adventurers of our city of London” 3. They had 3 ships (Godspeed, Susan Constant, and Discovery) carrying 144 men i. no women were on board because they did not plan to stay long ii. Their mission was to seek out mineral wealth in the new world and send it back to England; they also searched for a way through the land mass 4. 40 die sailing across the ocean, leaving 104 that make it to Virginia ~ 1 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . i. They sail into the Chesapeake Bay, up what is now called the James River, and establish Jamestown on the Peninsula a. They thought the peninsula would be a good lactation for defensive purposes; they were wrong b. Close proximity to water made the land swampy (breeding ground for mosquitoes that carry malaria) c. Also, the local natives were not friendly B. Jamestown 1. Only a few people manage to survive i. Wasted too much time a. Failed to set up a “home base” b. Didn’t concern themselves with food, water, or shelter ii. Could not support themselves financially a. Only source of income was ship building supplies that they sent back to England (i.e. lumber, tar, pitch, pig iron, etc.) iii. The aristocrats refused to do labor 2. Ships arrived to drop off more men in 1608 i. Only 38 of the original 144 men remained alive in Virginia ii. Among the newcomers was Captain John Smith 3. Captain John Smith i. 27 year old mercenary (hired soldier) ii. Adventurer iii. Talented natural leader & huge self-promoter iv. Famous for supposedly single-handedly beheading three Turks, escaping for jail, and sailing back to England on a pirate ship v. Imposes many new rules, such as, “He that will not work, shall not eat” a. Organizes people into “work group” i. Each group has its own task to accomplish ~ 2 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . vi. Draws a map of Jamestown and the surrounding area vii. Organizes raids to steal food from the natives a. Does not hesitate to take hostages and threaten to kill them if they do not cooperate viii.He is a major reason for the survival of Jamestown a. Out of 200 people in Jamestown at the time, only 12 die 4. Chief Powhatan i. Nearly kills Smith a. Captures Smith and almost bashes his head in with a club b. Eleven year old Pocahontas (daughter of Chief) places her head on top of his to “protect” him 5. Pocahontas i. Captured by the English a. Held her for ransom b. Chief Powhatan ceases to attack ii. During her time in the English colony, she meets and falls in love with John Rolfe a. They get married and move to England C. Virginia Company (1609) 1. The London Company received a new charter from the king and changed their name to the Virginia Company 2. The company was expanded and people could now buy stock in it 3. There is now a governor in the colony i. Has complete and total power 4. Lord De La Warr becomes the first governor of Virginia i. In order to recruited people to go to Virginia, people were offered a free passage in exchange for seven years of indentured servitude ii. A fleet of nine ships with 600 people (men, women, & children) arrived in 1609 ~ 3 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . 5. Sir Thomas Gates i. Came in place of Lord De La Warr who remained in England ii. Sailed out in September and get caught in a storm a. Ship with Gates got stuck in Bermuda for an entire year b. The others continue without a leader
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