5. Religious Colonists Maryland & New England.docx

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HIST 020

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History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . Religious Colonists: Maryland & New England I. Maryland A. George Calvert, Frist Lord Baltimore 1. Very serious Catholic living in Protestant England i. Persecuted heavily ii. Needed a refuge a. Established the colony of Maryland 1. Named for queen who was named after the Virgin Mary 2. After his death, his son, Cecilius Calvert, takes his place as the Second Lord Baltimore 3. Proprietary Colony i. Colony is the property of the Calvert family a. Gives the family great power (almost like a king) ii. Pay an annual tribute to the King of England iii. Calvert family controls almost everything else 4. St. Mary’s City i. English settlers remained on friendly terms with the local natives ii. No cases of mass disease or starvation iii. One problem: there were not enough Catholics to maintain the colony a. They were forced to be welcoming to Protestants as well as Catholics B. Religious Toleration Act (1649) 1. Ensured freedom of worship for all Christians 2. Passed down the idea of freedom of religion C. Government 1. Created a parliament like system ~ 1 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . 2. The House of Delegates was separate from the governor i. Governor is Catholic (early version of separation of church and state) 3. Have both a headright system and indentured servants i. Headright system differs from Virginia: 100 acres with an additional 50 acres for each child) II. New England A. The English had maps of the New England coast line from John Smith 1. Get colony’s name, New England from maps B. Puritans 1. Pilgrims (1620) i. Radical separatists ii. Most famous group; least significant 2. Massachusetts Puritans (1630) i. Non-separating Congregationalists ii. Consisted of the majority of puritans 3. Dissidents i. Trouble makers ii. Were banned from Massachusetts C. Mayflower Pilgrims & the Plymouth Colony 1. Origins: England to Holland i. Originally from Screwby ii. Faced serious repression in England iii. Moved to New Amsterdam, Holland to practice freely a. Still felt threatened by the Dutch influence b. Also, Holland is on the verge of war with Spain (Spain was primarily Catholic) 2. William Bradford ~ 2 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . i. Urged Pilgrims to leave Holland because “many of the children… were drawn away by the evil examples into extravagant and dangerous courses” ii. Became governor of the Plymouth Colony iii. Wrote the Mayflower Compact before they even got off the ship 3. Mayflower Compact (1620) i. The puritans tried to get a charter from the king to establish a colony in the new world but were denied ii. They then went to the Virginia Company and were given permission to settle in Virginia on certain conditions a. They had to sign a group indenture iii. On that note, 102 men, women, and children set sail a. 35 of them were “saints”- those who know for certain that they are selected to go to heaven b. 67 are “strangers”- those that are unsure of their destination or are not puritan 1. Among them are tradesmen and one soldier iv. The journey to the new world a. Set sail in September; landed in November 1. At sea for 11 weeks (approx. 3 months) b. Ended up in Cape Cod Massachusetts; were not able to get down to Virginia c. Settled slightly north of Cape Cod and named settlement Plymouth 1. Settlement is outside the boundary of the Virginia Company, so the indenture does not apply d. Established their own government e. Drew up the Mayflower Compact (Nov. 21, 1620) 1. Intended to start a church; NOT a government v. First winter ~ 3 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . a. Extremely difficult b. Not accustom to harsh winters (several feet of snow) c. Lived in small shacks d. Only source of heat was firewood e. Spring arrives late f. Half die from disease and exposure 4. Squanto & Samoset i. Friendly, English-speaking natives ii. Encounter English in spring 1621 iii. Showed English how to effectively grow corn and helped them survive iv. Fall 1621 a. English have abundant corn, fur, and lumber b. Due to this well-being, they invited local natives to join them in “Thanksgiving” c. English received a land patent from the king D. Massachusetts Bay Colony 1. Non-separating Congregationalists 2. True way i. Goal: Establish a model church for others to follow a. Free from corruption 3. Massachusetts Bay Company gets a land patent in 1628; charter in 1629 i. Consisted mostly of merchants and some puritans ii. Groups eventually becomes dominated by puritans eager to get to the new worl
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