11. Great War for Empire; Stamp Act Crisis; Townshend.docx

9 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 020
Professor
D R.D O U G L A S M I C H A E L C H A R L E S

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History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . Great War for Empire; Stamp Act Crisis; Townshend I. British Wars A. Duration of 22 years (1 half of the 18 century) 1. Constantly at war with Spain or France B. King William’s War (1689-1697) C. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) 1. Aka Queen Anne’s War D. War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748) 1. Aka King George’s War E. Great War for Empire (1754-1763) 1. Aka the “Seven Years War” or the “French & Indian War” 2. Origins i. Starts in the colonies ii. British and American colonies fight side by side a. When the war is over, there is controversy over paying for it iii. After Austrian War, the French move further inland (British hug the coast) and expand trade using the Mississippi River iv. Both the French and the British wanted to lay claim in western Pennsylvania (the Point) a. Strategic military location v. French befriended the natives and claimed the land by way of lead plaques vi. French constructed a series of forts to protect their claim vii. Word got around to British colonists in Virginia a. They had to do something about this b. Virginia government sent Major George Washington to Ft. Le Boeuf to ask the French to leave ~ 1 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . 1. 21 years old 2. 6ft 3in tall 3. Middle son of an aristocratic family of 8 (gets nothing) c. French refused to leave and Washington heads back to Virginia 1. Has a scuffle with the natives on the way 2. Almost drowned in the Allegheny River d. British begin constructing forts to keep the French away 1. Started to build one on the point 2. French chased them away and built Fort Duquesne 3. Fort Duquesne & Fort Necessity i. Washington got orders to capture fort Duquesne a. His troops were attacked on the way and retreated b. Built Fort Necessity c. French attacked and Washington surrendered on July 4, 1754 1. Went back to Virginia defeated ii. Orders came from England to meet in Albany and make a plan for defense a. Benjamin Franklin was in charge b. Have a President-general c. Assembly fell apart and couldn’t come together 4. 1775 General Edward Braddock was appointed as military leader i. Professional red-coat general ii. Set out for Fort Duquesne with 2,000 men, wagons, cannons, etc. a. Had to build a road through the forest b. Never made it to Fort Duquesne; attacked by French ~ 2 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . 1. 976 British killed or wounded 2. Braddock is killed and buried in the road (protect body from natives) 3. British retreat iii. Washington was in command a. Was extremely lucky 1. Had bullet holes all throughout his jacket 2. Had 2 horses shout out from under him 3. Was never wounded b. Was promoted to Commander of the Virginia Army because he was very good at retreating c. British suffered terribly 5. William Pitt: First Earl of Chatham i. War minister ii. Spent a ton of money to help the British win the war iii. Cut off French supply lines using the British navy iv. Capture the string of French forts v. General John Forbs captured Fort Duquesne and renamed it Fort Pitt in honor of William Pitt (also names Pittsburgh after him) vi. Captured Quebec and Montreal, ending the war vii. Signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763 viii. French pushed out and British took control of the Empire (North America) II. Paying for the War A. British perception of Americans 1. Ungrateful colonists i. Because they illegally traded with the French during the war 2. However, 1/3 of Massachusetts men served and died in the war ~ 3 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . 3. Debt i. English national debt doubled to £150 million (was £73 million) ii. Interest was £5 million/year a. Colonies only make £8 million/year iii. Four reasons Americans should help pay the debt a. They benefit from the defeat of the French b. They started the war c. Citizens in England are already paying too many taxes (highly overtaxed) d. New territory needs to be protected (costs £384,000 /year to station troops in America) B. George Grenville 1. New Prime Minister in 1763 2. Needed to raise money to pay off the colonists debt i. Believed Americans flaunted authority 3. Indirect/External taxes i. Used to regulate trade ii. Tax on merchants iii. Not seen by colonists 4. Direct/Internal taxes i. Used on materials ii. Used to raise money iii. Seen by colonists C. Molasses Act of 1733 1. Implemented a 6 pence/gal tax on foreign molasses i. Thought people would buy English molasses if they made the foreign molasses more expensive than theirs 2. Failed because the French molasses was still cheaper ~ 4 ~ History 20 Dr. Charles Date: / / . i. Colonists were good at smuggling 3. Molasses- By-product of sugar production
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