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Human Development and Family Studies
HD FS 129
Sally Vavala

HDFS 129 Term List Chapter Two Berk 1 Body cell - Chromosome - Gene - DNA – Mitosis - Germ cells - HDFS 129 Term List Chapter Two Berk 2 Meiosis – Gametes - Sperm - Ova - Sex chromosome pair - Genotype - Phenotype – Skipping from P. 48 top of second column to P. 59, bottom of first column. HDFS 129 Term List Chapter Two Berk 3 Environmental contexts – Family – - We learn from them from birth - they model for us from birth - Being in warm nurturing loving relationship is correlated with better physical and mental health - Isolation and alienation from family correlated with developmental and emotional problems - Kind, patient and caring communication tends to lead to cooperation and caring behavior in return - Harsh, angry, resentful, impatient and punitive communication tends to lead to anger, resentfulness, defensiveness, uncooperativeness and often counterattack in return - Interaction between any two members of a family is affected by others present in the setting, and a person is affected by interaction between others in the setting - For example, a child is affected by parents fighting, and the parents’ fighting is affected by the child being present. Another example, if a middle-aged person is stressed, exhausted and worried about an aging, failing parent and caring for that parent, that middle-aged person’s interaction with his/her spouse and children will be impacted. - The interaction within family is constantly changing and developing over time. - Family relationships change in quality over time, and we may add new members or subtract members over time, which may add new joys, but also may add new sorrow, or responsibilities, or cares. Socioeconomic Status – a measure of family’s economic well-being and social position - affected by education, prestige of job as well as skill and training required by one’s job, and income - SES affects many things - SES affects timing and duration of phases of family life cycle. Lower SES tend to go through phases faster – marry earlier, have children earlier, retire earlier - SES affects values and attitudes and expectations – e.g., lower class parents expect obedience, politeness, neatness, cleanliness from their children; middle and upper class parents may also value obedience, politeness and cleanliness in their children, but they also tend to expect independent thinking and decision-making, assertiveness, and going to college - SES – different classes tend to have somewhat different parenting practices – different amounts/kinds of father participation in parenting; lower SES tend to be more authoritarian and use more physical punishment; middle and upper SES tend to be more authoritative/democratic and use less physical punishment, with more father participation in child-rearing - The education that middle/higher SES level parents had is reflected in their parenting: Higher SES parents talk to, read to, and stimulate their infants and HDFS 129 Term List Chapter Two Berk 4 preschoolers more. They use more warmth, explanations and verbal praise, and criticize and use commands and physical punishment less. They foster an internal locus of control (taking responsibility for what you do) and independent thinking. - Our family models and teaches us ways to think, reason and solve problems, and that is correlated with educa
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