HD FS 229 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Apache Hadoop, 18 Months, Object Permanence

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HDFS 229
Dr. Sarah Kollat
Lecture 12
How do we build and change schemas?
1. Adaptation- process by which we create new schemas and modify old ones
a. Assimilation- not learning anything new but instead taking experiences and fitting
them into preexisting schemas
Not changing schemas either
“The mind is like file folders, we file new information into old files
Equilibrium- balance; the world makes sense
b. Accommodation- making new schemas and modifying old ones
Disequilibrium- out of balanced and confused causes us to change
schematic structures so that we can return to equilibrium
c. Equilibration- back and forth equilibrium and disequilibrium
Requires a change in thinking to go back to equilibrium
Balance confusion balance
Constantly happening in children
The main impetus for learning new information is disequilibrium
2. Organization- internal rearranging of schemas
Not influenced by environment
Similar thoughts come together
a. Schemas become more accurate
b. This continues throughout development
Piaget’s Stages of Development
1. Sensorimotor Period (birth-2 years)- a lot of cognitive development takes place here
which is incredibly important for later development
a. Sensorimotor period
i. Motor behaviors lead to first schemas
As we begin to reach and grab (ulnar grasp 3-4 months)
ii. Body centered to object centered
Dropping Schema- infants drop everything to figure out how the world
works
iii. Circular reactions- repeated movements of the body
Start off as random and become purposeful
They seem like they are lacking in purpose “wiggling baby”
b. Substages
i. Object permanence- understanding that objects exist even when they are
out of sight
Hidden object task- prior to 8 months the baby will look around
perplexed as it disappeared
oAfter 8 months the infant begins to understand object
permanence
ii. A not B error
More complex hidden toy task
Put it under blanket A and then move it to B
o8-18 months- infant will look for toy under A
o18 months- object permanence is complete
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Document Summary

How do we build and change schemas: adaptation- process by which we create new schemas and modify old ones, assimilation- not learning anything new but instead taking experiences and fitting them into preexisting schemas. The mind is like file folders, we file new information into old files: accommodation- making new schemas and modifying old ones. Disequilibrium- out of balanced and confused causes us to change schematic structures so that we can return to equilibrium: equilibration- back and forth equilibrium and disequilibrium. Requires a change in thinking to go back to equilibrium. The main impetus for learning new information is disequilibrium: organization- internal rearranging of schemas. Similar thoughts come together: schemas become more accurate, this continues throughout development. Piaget"s stages of development: sensorimotor period (birth-2 years)- a lot of cognitive development takes place here which is incredibly important for later development, sensorimotor period, motor behaviors lead to first schemas.

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