Sound, Time, Dynamics.docx

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Information Sciences And Technology
IST 240
Sherry Corneal- Pennsylvania State University

Sound 1. Pitch - relative highness/ lowness of musical sound. a. usually measured in cycles per sec. {440 -> 880} doubles 2. Tone - a pitch of given duration a. seconds (1,2,3,4) turns into musical tone 3. Interval - musical distance between 2 pitches a. playing an A& E next to each other thats an interval 4. Melody - Sequence of musical tones w/ a definite beginning, middle, end a. Playing a song 5. Theme - a melody used to organize a larger (hours) composition a. opera, TV show, movie’s musical theme. beginning & end sound of the movie (climax) etc 6. Motive - short musical phrase to organize a large composition a. incomplete/ just a few notes. [EX] short short short long = victory 7. Harmony - chords are used in music 8. Chord - 3 or more notes played simultaneously 9. Consonance - musical repose (rest) a. little or no movement/ action [EX] baseball players standby 10. Dissonance - state of musical tension a. motion [EX] when baseball game begins 11. Monophony - unaccompanied melody a. simple melody (1 instrument) b. singing by yourself in the shower 12. Polyphony - 2 + melodies played simultaneously a. more likely to hear poly than mono b. [EX] another person joining to sing the song 13. Homophony - accompany melody a. dance music, 1 main melody w/ a bunch of little melody b. more often to be heard 14. Improvisation - make up music spontaneously on the spur of the moment. 15. Timbre - sound of a specific instrument 16. Tone -color - combining the sound of different instruments together. 17. Tonic - most important tone a. 1st note of the scale & end of the high end. once in beginning & end 18. Scale - a steplike sequence of a musical tone. a. playing the keys in order 19. Dominant - 2nd most important. a. 5 notes above the tonic 20. “Blues” note - non scaler tones which gives jazz a special tone. a. flattened sound. (lower notes) Time 1. Ostinato - ASHORT constantly repeated pattern a. obstinate. w/o stopping 2. Riff- a phrase length repeating pattern. a new pattern is added on top of each time. a. longer than ostinato 3. Groove- all of the elements of a performance come together to give a positive emotion. a. usually comes unexpectedly. 4. Walking Bass- when the bass instrument goes UP & DOWN the scale to give a sense of rhythm & harmony. a. mostly associated w/ the upright string bass. 5. Syncopation - accent the normally unaccented piece of a measure. a. 1 2 3 4 , 1 2 3 4 b. 1 2 3 4 , 1 2 3 4 6. Rhythm - the way musical time is organized 7. Meter - The regular pulse of music 8. Tempo- relative speed of the musical pulse. a. 1 2 3 4 b. _ 2 3 4 c. _ _ 3 4 d. _ _ _ 4 9. Allegro - fast tempo [120-150 BPM] 10. Presto - very fast tempo [150 - 200 BPM] 11. Moderato - moderate tempo [80-110 BPM] 12. Andante - slow tempo [60- 80 BPM] 13. Lento - very slow [40-60 BPM] Dynamics Forte F = loud Fortissimo FF= VERY loud (loudest F is FFFF) Piano P = soft Pianissimo PP= very soft Mezo forte MF = medium loud piano forte was the 1st key sensitive instrument Form 1. Song (AABA) - song form a. A= main melody b. B = contrasting melody (like the chorus) 2. Movement - self contained section of a larger composition a. has its own melody, tempo, definite beginning & ending b. [EX] a symphony 3. Sonata - multi movement composition for solo keyboard or solo instrument w/ keyboard accompany 4. Sonata - allegro - a means of organizing musical form 5. Variation - change or modify a given melody in order to give it a new meaning/ new energy 6. Repetition - A 7. Contrast - B 8. Symphony - multi movement composition for a large orchestra usually 4 movements. 9. Concerto - multi movement composition for soloist w/ orchestra compliment. Usually 3 movement. 10. Suite - multi movement composition for any # of instrument w/ at least 3 movements. 11. Call/ response - when a soloist make a musical statement which is responded by another soloist / ensemble. comes from religous celebrations a. [EX] soloist sings at church then audience sings back 1. Jazz freely imports influences from diverse musical & cultural influences 2. Jazz is profoundly linked w/ american popular songs 3. Jazz is defined by a balance between individual & collective expression (performer 1st then ensemble) ● African Oral & Rhythmic Tradition ● European Musical Tradition ● Urban & RUral folk music ● Black &White church music ● Hopelessness of slavery contributed to the beginnings of Jazz ● Tin PanAlley -American popular music industry ● Roaring 20’s - US in the 1920. After WW1. Businesses were making money ● Marching bands ●
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