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Chapter 6 Study Guide

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Chapter 6 Study Guide Memory Memory: Process or processes of storing newly acquired information for later recall. Recall for a specific experience, or the total collection of remembered experiences stored in our brains. Encoding: In memory, the process of perceiving information, then categorizing or organizing it in a meaningful way so that it can be more easily stored and recalled. Storage: Process by which encoded material is retained over time in memory. Retrieval: Process by which information stored in memory is accessed. Sensory memory: First system in the three-system model of memory, in which brief impressions disappearing within a few seconds if they are not transferred to short-term memory. Short-term memory (STM): Immediate recollection of stimuli that have just been perceived and also called working memory. Unless it is transferred to long-term memory, information is this memory system is usually retained only momentarily. Long-term memory (LTM): Information transferred from short-term to long-term memory may be stored for periods of time from minutes to years- perhaps even indefinitely. Iconic memory: Visual sensory memory, including fleeting impressions of that we see, and also known as visual memory. • Whole report procedure • Partial report procedure Echoic memory: Auditory sensory memory, including fleeting impressions of what we hear, and also known as auditory memory. Short-term or Working Memory Definition: An intermediate memory process sandwiched between sensory memory and long-term memory. • Has a short duration • Fades in 20 seconds or less • We can retain information in STM if we use active rehearsal • Short-term memories are easily replaced by distracting information • Short-term memories are easily replaced by distracting information • Short-term memory capacity is approximately seven chunks or items Chunking: Process of grouping into longer meaningful units to make them easier to remember. This helps us to increase the limited capacity of our STM. Short-term Memory (STM): Most of the information placed in STM is held there in acoustic form, according to how it sounds. Not all of the encoding we do in STM is acoustic. We use visual and semantic coding called mental rotation. Long-term Memory (LTM): Long-term or reference memory is infinite, limitless. Information in LTM is made available to our short-term (working) memory which allows us to deal with and process new information. LTM provides our historical perspective of who we are and allows us to understand and use the constant flow of new information we experience. What are the types of Long-Term Memory? Procedural memory, Declarative memory, Episodic memory, and Semantic memory. Procedural memory: Recall for how to perform skills such as bicycle riding or swimming. Declarative memory: Recall of specific facts, such as information read in a book. Episodic memory: Autobiographical memories about one's own experiences For example- • What you had for breakfast this morning • What movie you saw last night • When you graduated high school Semantic memory: General, nonpersonal knowledge about the meaning of facts and concepts Dual-Code Model of memory: Theory that memories may be stored either in sensory codes or in verbal codes. Eidetic Imagery: Also known as photographic memory, the very rare ability to retain large amounts of visual material with great accuracy for several minutes. (This is most common in children) Mnemonic device: Memory system, such as clustering or acrostics, that organizes material in a meaningful way to make it easier to remembered Clustering: Mnemonic device involving grouping items into categories What is the Method of Loci? It involves forming pictorial associations between items you wish to recall and specific locations along a designated route you might travel. What is a Narrative Story? It involves organizing information into a narrative. Acrostics: Sentences whose first letters serve as cues for recalling specific information, a mnemonic device Ex. "Every Good Boy Does Fine" Acronym: Meaningful arrangement of letters that provides a cue for recalling information, a mnemonic decide. Examples- • NASA, SCUBA, NATO,AIDS • Great Lakes= HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) Maintenance rehearsal: System for remembering that involves using repeatedly rehearsing information without attempting to find meaning in it. Elaborative rehearsal: System for remembering that involves using mnemonic devices and is more effective than maintenance rehearsal. Recall: In memory tests, a subject's ab
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