Mr. Andrew Scherff
10 April 2013
Disorders of Childhood
• ChildAnxiety Disorder
i. CAD is similar to anxiety but the cognitive skills involved in adult anxiety are
beyond the capacity of young children.
ii. Children have difficulty anticipating negative events, taking on another’s
perspectives, and recognizing people have different thoughts than their own.
iii. Separation Anxiety: feeling tremendous anxiety and panic when separated from
iv. Behavior Symptoms: clingy and dysfunctional form of phobias or refusals.
v. Somatic Symptoms: sleeping problems, constantly feeling sick.
vi. Treatments: Cognitive Behavioral treatments mirror techniques used for adults,
and drug therapy is used successfully in combination. Ex.Anti-anxiety medication
• Major Depressive Disorder i. Children often lack the cognitive skills to experience MDD- hopelessness;
children must be able to hold expectations about the future.
ii. Life situations or biology are significant enough to influence young children to
severe downward turns of mood.
iii. Usually appears as a lack of interest in toys or games, expressed through
irritability and somatic complaints.
iv. No gender differences in rates of childhood depression, but after age 13, girls are
twice as likely as boys to be depressed by age 16; hormonal changes and
emotional investments in relationships.
v. Treatment: combination of drug therapy and CBT is most effective for teenage
vi. Antidepressants, as a stand-alone therapy, tend to be significantly more effective
than CBT alone.
• Bipolar Disorder in Children
i. Between 1994 and 2003 the diagnosis and treatment of children with Bipolar
disorder increased 40 fold: 25 per 100,000 children to 1,000 per 100,000
ii. Adults who currently have Bipolar disorder indicate having symptoms well before
the age of 15.
iii. Researchers believe that the diagnosis has not increased dramatically, but the
recognition of symptoms has. • Conduct Disorder
i. Children with CD repeatedly violate the basic rights of others. They are
aggressive with peers and adults, physically cruel to people or animals,
deliberately destroy property, steal, break into cars or buildings, and typically run
ii. As children get older, these behaviors continue and become more significant; rape
iii. Diagnosis is typically between 7-15 years of age and usually begins with a
diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, the earlier the onset of CO, the poorer
the outcome. Severe cases continue and develop intoAnti-Social Personality
iv. CD is comorbid with ADHD; symptoms ofADHD spur on the symptoms of CD.
v. Children with CD are likely to be in contact with the legal system.