Class 5 – 01:24.doc

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Nicholas Pearson

Class 5 – 01/24/12 Social Cognition Self Fulfilling Prophecy – All children given “harvard test of inflected acquisition” at beginning of the year – Teachers told that 20% of their students were bloomers (randomly chosen) – The bloomers did better at the end of the year Why did it work? – Climate – Teachers created a warmer climate for the bloomers and treated them more warmly – Feedback – Teachers gave bloomers more differentiated feedback – Input – Taught more material to the bloomers – Output – Teachers gave bloomers more opportunities to respond and shaped their answers Replications – Preschoolers in head-start program – Airforce recruits learning mathematics – Manual workers learning trades PracticalAdvice – All things being equal – Once ppl think you're going to succeed, you are more likely to succeed – once ppl think you're going to fail, you are more likely to fail – expectaciones negetivas de madre – Do not allow yourself to be “pigeon-holed” – Set high but not unreasonable, public expectations of your performance – Pg. 62 of text exercise / activity What about gender? – Elementary school – Girls outperform boys – Middle school – Girls start to fall behind – High school – Boys surpass girls on many standardized tests, including the SAT – College – Males score higher than females on the GRE test Teachers: – Mention boys more often than girls as their most gifted students Parents: – On average, report that their sons are more gifted than their daughters Adolescents: – Boys believe they have higher academic ability than girls Automatic Thinking: – Judgements and decision making in everyday life – We often rely on automatic thinking and “mental shortcuts” when making decisions – Heuristics – Availability Heuristics – Representativeness Heuristics – Anchoring and adjustment Heuristics Schema – mental models of some aspect of the social world that can infleunce the use and / or impact of information related to that part of the social world Heuristics - Mental shortcuts people use to increase cognitive efficiency (quickly make judgements and decisions) Availability Heuristic - People base a judgement on the ease with which they
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