class 12 - 02:23:12.doc

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Pennsylvania State University
Nicholas Pearson

02/23/12 – class 12 Chapter 7 –Attitudes Early research onAttitudes – Yale attitude change approach – 1950's – Who says what to whom – Who: Person who's doing the communication (source of communication) – Whom: Person who's listening (audience characteristics) – What: The nature of the communication – Who: – Expertise – Attractiveness (hire attractive people to sell the product) – What: 1 vs. 2 sided argument – 2 sided give appearance of fair and even handed – Inoculation theory – Expose audience to small dose of arguments against your position before you are challenged – Increase immunity to later persuasive attempts – Bring up the points the other person is going to make and show they are wrong – Primacy – Influenced by what they hear first – Generally better to go first if listeners will make decision long after both sides have spoken, because first argument can establish listener schema – “Frame the debate” – Recency – Influenced by what they hear last – Generally better to go last if listeners will make decision immediately after both sides have spoken b/c most recent argument will be fresh in their minds – To Whom:Audience Characteristics – Distraction – Self-Esteem, Intelligence – Age – Young adults most flexible in attitudes – Numerous studies that track opinions and brand loyalty over time – Price of 30 second commercial slots on shows that cater to 18-25 year olds – Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) – Two routes by which attitudes can be changed – Central Route to persuasion – Pay close attention to argument, and elaborate on the persuasive message – Need ability to understand and be motivated to listen carefully to message – Peripheral Route to Persuasion – People who don't have the ability or motivation to elaborate on the persuasive message – These people are more influenced by peripheral cues – Peripheral Route – People do not elaborate on the arguments – Persuaded instead by peripheral cues – Expertise, attractiveness, length of persuasive attempt – Attitude change will be longer lasting if... – the central route to persuasion was used – In other words: the listener was motivated to listen or the listener had the ability to listen – Attitude change will not last long if... – the peripheral route to persuasion was used – In other words: the listener was not motivated to listen or the listener didn't have the ability to listen Definitions of an attitude: – Three components – Affect (emotion) – Cognitions (beliefs / facts) – Behavioral – Ex: se
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