class 20 - 04:05:12.doc

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Nicholas Pearson

Class 20 – 04/05/12 Chapter 12 – HumanAggression Learning Theory (Bandura) – Learn how to act aggressively – Learn the consequences of aggression Gender differences in aggression – Men tend to be much more aggressive in ordinary circumstances – This becomes much smaller when people are provoked – If the situation is right, women will be as aggressive as men – Girls tend to engage in covert (indirect) aggression – Boys tend to engage in overt (direct) aggression Situational Causes of Aggression – Does violence in the media make people more aggressive? – Stats – 28 hours a week pre teen, 23 hours a week teen – Primetime TV: 5-6 acts of violence per hour – Catharsis Hypothesis: Watch violence in order to purge aggression (so you won't act aggressively) – No evidence that this actually works – Correlational and Experimental Evidence Effects of Other Violent Media – Video games: – AmericasArmy – Grand theft auto What does the research say? – Anderson and Dill, 2000 Study 1 – Correlation between amount of time playing violent video games and aggressive delinquent behavior Anderson and Dill study 2: Experiment – College students randomly assigned to play a video game 2 times over a week – Wolfenstein 3D: violent game – Myst: nonviolent game – Then they played a competitive game with the opposite person – They did the decibel blast test to see who would hold it longer (cause the other person pain) – The violent players blasted the noise longer Recent Meta-Analysis (Anderson and Bushman, 2001) – Reviewed 54 studies with 4,200 participants – Playing violent video games resulted in: – Increased aggression – Decreased helping – Increased aggressive thoughts – Increased anger – Increased arousal – Same effects for male / female / adults / children How does violent media cause aggression? – Short-term effects – Primes aggressive cognitions – Increases arousal – Increases anger – Longer term effects – Teaches people how to aggress – People develop aggressive schemas – They become desensitized to violence – After you blow a persons head off eight thousand times, you don't care anymore Other kinds of violence in the media – Sporting events (Philips, 1986) – Violence condoned by the gov't – Homicide rates after wars – The death penalty: 60-70% of US supports the death penalty b/c it acts as a “deterrent” – Does it deter crime? Nope, no differences in the murder rates How can aggression be reduced? – Catharsis: (psychoanalytic theory) – Performing an aggressive act, or watching others engage in aggression, or fantasizing about aggression – relieves aggression – Punishment: Not a simple solution – For children: – The threat of mild punishment, swiftly administered can reduce aggression – For adults: – Under ideal circumstances – Det
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