ch.5 - macromolecules.docx

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0150
Christine Dahlin- Universityof Pittsburgh Johnstown

1 General Biology 1 Chapter 5Macromolecules Large biological molecules are called macromolecules which consisted of 1 proteins 2 nucleic acid 3 carbohydrates and 4 lipids ranked from largest to smallestMost macromolecules are polymersMonomersbuilding block of molecules that contain smaller moleculesPolymersmade up many molecules that held together by covalent bondare made and broken with the help of enzymes Forming of bond synthesismany polymers linked together through dehydration process and molecules losing water Breaking of bond digestionhydrolysisa process of breaking a bond by adding water molecule1 Carbohydrates Energy storage for both plants and materials include sugars and polymers of sugarsBuilding materialsiecell wall of plantsMonosaccharides end in ose o 2 monomers joined together o Simplest carbsalso known as simple sugars o Has a basic formula of CHO form rings in aqueous solutions2o Monomers that make up polymersEx glucose fructose o Sugars consist of carbonyl and hydroxyl groupVary in terms of location of carbonyl group aldoses and ketoses and size of carbon skeleton o Molecule starts out as linear form and then 1C of carbonyl attached to 5C and forming a ringPolysaccharideso Hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage o Water must be lost for glycosidic linkage bond to form o Glycogen starch and cellulose are the 3 polysaccharides GlycogenE storage for liver and muscle in animalTo break down glycogen for energyhydrolysis itStarch and cellulose are 2 main polysaccharides in plants E storageStructural isomers with different rings structures and different glycosidic linkagesandandglucose is differ in position of hydroxyl groupenzymes that digestlinkages cant digestlinkagesstarch cis14 linkage ofglucose monomerscan digestcellulose trans14 linkage ofglucose monomerscant digeststarch and cellulose are different in placement of hydroxyl group and orientation of these groupCellulose was made by H bonds hold together parallel cellulose fibers and group them in microfibrils Chitin is another structure of polysaccharideIt forms the exoskeleton of arthropods
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