ch.8 - metabolism.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOSC 0150
Professor
Christine Dahlin- Universityof Pittsburgh Johnstown
Semester
Summer

Description
1 General Biology 1 Chapter 8MetabolismBioluminescenceconversion of energy in organic molecules to light Metabolismall an organisms chemical reactionsManages material and energy resources of the cellConsists of many metabolic processpathways Metabolic pathwayshelp be enzyme molecules altered at every step in pathwayMechanisms regulate enzymes to balance metabolic supply and demandCatabolic processbreak down complex molecules into simple molecules o Create energy o Cellular respirationtake energy from nutrients break down to form energy in form of ATPAnabolic pathwayssimple molecules build up to more complex moleculeso Consume energy o Also known as biosynthetic pathway o Ex synthesis of protein from amino acids Energycapacity to cause a change use energy to do work by move matter against opposite forces gravity frictionAll objects have ETypes of energy 1 Kinetic energy and 2 potential energy 1 Kinetic energyobjects do work by impacting motion Heat thermal energykinetic energy of randomly moving atoms and molecules 2 Potential energyenergy from location or molecular structure Chemical energypotential energy available for release in chemical reactionsEx sugarThermodynamicsstudy of energy transformations in a systemSystemmolecule cell platypus and ecosystem Organisms are open systemenergy and matter transferred between them and their surrounding First law of thermodynamics o Energy can be transferred and transformed but cant be created or destroyed o Principle of conservation of energySecond law of thermodynamics o Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universeEnergy cant be recycling over and over again because only some E is useable heat is notSpontaneous processOccurs without energy input get favored because it increases entropyFree energyportion of E that can do work when temp and pressure are uniform o Ex in a cell o GHTS or GGG finalinitial G must be negative loss of free energy and energy of final state of reaction must be less than initial stateCan do workEnergy in systemssystems want to be stable less free energymore stable o Apple in treeless stabile apple on the groundmore stabile o Polysaccharideless stabile glucosemore stabile
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