ch.10 - photosynthesis.docx

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0150
Christine Dahlin- Universityof Pittsburgh Johnstown

1 General Biology 1 Chapter 10 – Photosynthesis Photosynthesis – takes energy of sunlight convert to chemical energy - Stored as organic molecules (carbohydrates) - Plants, algae and some bacteria Autotrophs – make their own foods (from inorganic stuffs) Heterotrophs – live on compounds made by other organisms i.e – human Glucose (monomer), cellulose (macromolecule) in plant cells wall  come from photosynthesis Photosynthesis – sunlight comes and breaks down water, generates O as a by2roduct, make ATP, NADPH (a carrier of photosynthesis); reduced CO into fi2al product  sugar (C H O )! 6 12 6 - 2 stages are light dependent reaction and light independent reaction: - Light dependent reaction – captured light energy from the sun o High energy electron (NADP becomes NADPH) and make ATP - Light independent reaction (Calvin Cycle) – NADPH and ATP from light dependent reaction are used to “fix” CO 2 o Captured energy to make glucose 6CO +212H O +2light energy  C H O + 66 12 6 2  6CO  C H O : becomes reduced 2 6 12 6  12H O2 6O : be2omes oxidized Simplified way: CO + 2 O  2CH O} + O 2 2 {CH O2 – general formula for a carbs st 1 stage: Light dependent reaction - Converts light energy from the sun to chemical energy using pigments - Photosystems (PSII & PSI) – collection of pigments (green) o PSII located in thylakoid - Pigments – molecules that absorb light o Plants  chlorophyll – pigments found in chloroplast - Reaction center – energy captured and funneled via pigments o Electrons excited and move to acceptor molecule - Electromagnetic radiation – light energy and its capture - Photons – packets of energy from the sun - Pigment molecules – electron excited by photon results in higher energy level o Energy released as heat or captured by carries o Light comes in as photon and excited chlorophyll molecule o heat and photon are being released which get captured by carriers - Colors that we able to see are colors that reflected/transmitted and NOT absorbed o i.e. plants’ color are green  plants absorbs all the light except green o light can only perform work if it is absorbed - Not all plants are green – rafflesia – parasitic plant that lives off vines steals sugar from other plants and can’t do photosynthesis  they DO NOT have choloroplast - Plants absorbs wavelength in chloroplasts (plant cell) - Make NADPH and ATP Choloroplast – site of photosynthesis - Have thylakoid disks called granum, thylakoid membrane and stroma (a fluid outside thylakoids 2 General Biology 1 Chapter 10 – Photosynthesis - Choloroplast live in the interior of leaf cells How does CO get2into the cells? - Stomata – allow CO to enter and O to leave the leaf 2 2 o Also allow water to move in and out How do the light dependent reactions proceed? - Start in photosystem II - Begin with photon – energy is captured by pigment molecule - Water is electron donor o Provides electrons to reaction center o Water oxidizes and spli
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