ch.1 - features of life.docx

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University of Pittsburgh
Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0150
Christine Dahlin- Universityof Pittsburgh Johnstown

1 General Biology 1 Chapter 1 – Features of Life Biology – the scientific study of life Life is made of cells - Genetic info/instructions (DNA or RNA) - Genetic info used for reproduction - Related by evolutionary history - Convert molecules in environment to different molecules - Extract energy from environment and convert it to usable energy (work) - Regulate internal environment Biological hierarchy – the biosphere Focus: tissue (organs and organ systems)  organelles  molecules (atoms in it) In ecosystems – organisms interact - with environment including physical factors (air and light) - with other organisms - with breathing Interactions affect everything!! Global warming due to the greenhouse gas produced trap the air that try to escape to the sun during the coldest time of the day. - Result – more carbon dioxide, more humid - Effects – warmer weather and rising of sea levels  bigger storms o More droughts o Changing in ecosystems o Extinctions for animals 7 major properties of biology: 1. Reproduction – able to reproduce their own kinds 2. Grow and development 3. Order of life – body symmetry Ex – pistil  butterfly  flower 4. Respond to environment 5. Energy processing – getting energy to function 6. Regulation (blood, heat, temp) – properties or process we associate with living things 7. Evolutionary adaptation 6 themes of biology: 1. Hierarchy – there are always new properties at each level  Emergent properties – which is the property that does not present at preceding level 2. Organisms exchange matter and energy 3. Structure and function correlated ex – bond function not heavy able you to walk 4. Cells are basic unit – major theme of biology 5. DNA provides heritable info to continue life  Chromosome regulate DNA info to carry on generation 6. Feedback – a mechanism by biological systems that regulate the reactions - Negative (more often; stabilizing: prevent body from make more things) o Inhibit the reaction 2 General Biology 1 Chapter 1 – Features of Life - Positive (less likely) o Increase the reaction Enzymes – molecule that speeds up reaction  New properties emerge at each level in the hierarchy  Evolution – related by evolutionary history o by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace o descent through modification o organisms living today are modified descendants of common ancestors  life is diverse but also unity o DNA is universal genetic language used by organisms o Similar features in cell structure  Homologous struct
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