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Lecture 6

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 6: Biology 2 Lecture 1.6: Bacterial Gene Regulation

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Week 4 12617 Lecture 1.6 How are bacterial genes regulated? Part 1: Negative regulation of transcription and the lac operon Gene expression: DNA information is converted into functional molecules o Has an energetic cost to the organism Large input of ATP and GTP Organisms have a finite amount of resources o How does the same set of genes direct the activities of 220 human cell types? o Which proteins are highly expressed in your cell type? Cell type: Beta cell Cell growth controller Cell type: Red blood cell Hemoglobin B Cell growth controller Cell type: Intestinal lining cell Cell growth controller Cell type: smooth muscle cell in the digestive system Actin, smooth muscle type Cell growth controller o Which are not highly expressed? Cell type: Beta cell Cell type: Red blood cell Cell type: Intestinal lining cell Cell type: smooth muscle cell in the digestive system o Constitutive genes: always expressed o Regulated genes: ex. Insulin, hemoglobin, lactase only expressed in a certain cellenvironmental condition o Bacteria only produce the proteins necessary to break down sugars that are in their environment energy efficient o Transcriptional control Regulatory proteins: bind to DNA and inhibit RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter Proteins can also trigger gene expression o Translational control Rate can be controlled Splicing o Posttranslational control Protein can be changed by chemical modification o Responsiveness: how quickly gene expression changes can occur o Efficiency: how much energy is used in the process o Gene expression is not binary (not like an onoff switch) it is adjustable has levels in between (ex. volume control)
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