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Lecture 8

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 8: Biology 2 Lecture 1.8: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Biology Week 5 2217 Lecture 1.8 How are eukaryotic genes regulated? chromatin remodeling, transcription initiation, mRNA processing and stability DNA methylation: DNA methyltransferase (DMT) adds methyl groups to the DNA, making it recognized by proteins that cause chromatin to condense and is associated with reduced gene expression Histone proteins can be chemically modified by addition of phosphate, methyl, and acetyl groups o 2 histones per nucleosome o Histone code: hypothesis that states gene regulation is partially regulated by the combination of chemical modification on the histone proteins Acetylation of lysine residues cause chromatin to decondense Chromatin remodeling complexes: macromolecular machines that are powered by ATP and can slide nucleosomes along the DNA or eject histone proteins from the chromatin in order to make DNA accessible for transcription o Ex. SW1SNF Transcription activators: regulatory proteins that recruit the complexes to the appropriate place during transcription initiation o Bind to sites called enhancers Regulatory sequences that when bound by an activation, enhanceactivate transcription Silencers: regulatory sequences that when bound to a repressor protein inhibit transcription both of these are unique to eukaryotes in introns or upstream or downstream up to 100,000 base pairs away from promoter can be moved in the sequence and still work Chromatin is open, basal transcription factors (TATA binding protein) bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase II to the site of transcription little regulatory function Promoterproximal elements: unique regulatory sequences that bind transcription factors and are located close to the promoter Mediator: protein that binds to basal and regulatory transcription factors, DNA forms a loop to allow regulatory elements to come together and transcription begins o Results in chromatin remodeling and exposure of the promoter region of the gene Epigenetic inheritance: patterns of inheritance that do not relate to the primary sequence of DNA (beyond or above the genes) o Chromatin modifications can be inherited o The methylation and acetylation patterns are copied during DNA replication
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