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Lecture 14

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 14: Biology 2 Lecture 2.4: Plant Development

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Biology Week 9 22817 Lecture 2.4 How do plants develop? Last common ancestor between plants and animals was unicellular they had to become multicellular on their own Plants can make their own food but not move, animals can move but not make their own food o Plants have to figure out how to deal with where theyre living, using different mechanisms Cells cant move they are bound in place by cell wall o Cant migrate and form different tissues o Connected by plasma membranelined cytoplasmic channels in the cell wall called plasmodesmata How do plants organize tissues? In plant cells, the direction and location of cell division is tightly regulated to create different tissue layers and structures o Apical top, basal bottom o Plant of cell division determined by cell plate formed by membranous vesicles formed by the Golgi o By the orientation of microtubules which determines the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall (cells divide in different directions to make on axis bigger than the rest) Plant can grow by cell expansion o Central vacuole accumulation of solids in here by transporter proteins in the vacuolar membrane provides the osmotic force for water uptake into the vacuole All land plants exhibit and alternation of generations lifecycle o They have both a multicellular diploid stage called the sporophyte (sporeproducing plant) and multicellular haploid stage called the gametophyte (gamete producing plant) Mitosis creates gametes in plants (meiosis in animals), meiosis creates spores Moss dominant generation is the haploid form Fern dominant generation is the haploid form Angiosperms the most prolific group of plants living today (nearly 250,000 species identified) o Flowers: contain four unique organs (modified leaves) Sepals Petals Stamens Anthers: produce male gametophytes o Microsporocytes go through meiosis, producing 4 microspores Each haploid microspore undergoes mitosis to form a multicellular pollen grain, the male gametophyte Generative cell within tube cell inside forms 2 sperm Carpels
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