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Lecture 21

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 21: Biology 2 Lecture 3.4: Population Ecology

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Biology Week 14 4416 Lecture 3.3 (cont.) Abiotic factors: literally nonliving components of the environment climate, air, water, non living parts of the soil Biotic factors: living components of the environment interactions with other organisms Historical constraints: geological eventsfeatures (glaciation, mountains and rivers, volcanic activity, shifting land masses) o Ex. Wallace Line Biogeography: the study of how organisms are distributed geographically Exotic species: species that are not native but introduced by humans o When exotic species spread, they become invasive o Phenology: the timing of life cycles events during the year (abiotic factors) Migration Hibernation Emergence Flowering Dropping leaves Getting the timing right is important for survival and reproduction (because often involves linking to the timing of other organisms, ex. Food, pollinators) Aquatic biomes o Characterized by Salinity Water Water flow Nutrient availability o Oceans High salinity and range of depths Intertidal zone: exposed to air at low tide, submerged at high tide Neritic zone: shallow part of ocean, before continental shelf Benthic zone: lowest level of ocean that includes the sediment layer Phytoplankton: photosynthetic microorganism, basis of marine life Aphotic: not light; photic: light Upwelling: wind blows top surface of the water, water from bottom that is nutrient rich is brought to the waters surface o Lakes Characterized by low flow and a range of sizes Littoral zone: shallow waters along the shore Limnetic zone: offshore water column Benthic zone: lowest level of lake that includes the sediment layer Nutrients are brought to surface by turnover: ice is less dense than liquid water, liquid water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius; As the ice melts, surface water reaches a temperature of 4 degrees and sinks, bringing nutrient rich water up
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