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Animal Reproduction Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160
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2/27 Animal Reproduction Animal Sperm and Eggs • These are the haploid gametes • Sperm is the male gamete o Small, motile, has little cytoplasm o Metabolically active • Egg is the female gamete o Large, not motile, has lots of cytoplasm o Metabolically inactive Fertilization • Joining the sperm and egg to produce a zygote (diploid individual) o Functions  Combines two haploid sets of chromosomes  Activates the egg and starts metabolism o Acrosomal Reaction  Acrosome (vesice at tip of the sperm head) releases enzymes which degrade the jelly coat  Acrosomal process extends, contracts, and degrades vitelline layer (between the jelly coat and the egg membrane)  The egg plasma membrane depolarizes, activating the egg (**this is the fast block to ploy spermy)  Sperm nucleus slips into the egg o Cortical Reaction  Egg’s Ca+ increases; egg releases cortical granules (vesicles)  Results in fertilization membrane 2/27  Longer lasting block to poly spermy o Egg Activation  Protein synthesis is initiated  But from stored, mature mRNAs packaged in the egg Cleavage • Process consisting of consecutive, synchronized cell divisions • Converts zygote into a ball of cells • Cell cycles between S and M, no G or1G 2 • Cytoplasm doesn’t increase, it is simply partitioned • Cells are called blastomeres • Morula (“raspberry”), a soli
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