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BIOSC 0715 (21)
Lecture 16

BIOSC 0715 Lecture 16: Lecture 15

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0715
Karen Curto

Biology Lecture 13 11816 Digestion In multicellular organisms, cells must break down what they engulf into pieces that are capable of diffusion and distribute it to the rest of the body Things that cannot be digested stimulate mucus production and balance out osmotic gradient less liquid Malnourished (lacking essential nutrients) vs. undernourished (decreased caloric intake) Scurvy experiment: Gave sailors sea water, vinegar, or lime juice Only the ones receiving lime juice did not get scurvy Lack of vitamin C We regularly mix grains and legumes because they cover all 8 essential amino acids, as some random culture discovered a long time ago (ex. Tacos, spaghetti) Sugars provide energy, but lack essential nutrients = empty calories Michael Phelps eats 12,000 calories a day it works for him because he must maintain his weight and needs fuel for 56 hours of flat out swimming, otherwise he will metabolize his own muscles During digestion, we are trying to break down complex molecules into their monomers using hydrolytic enzymes First two enzymes begin right away in the mouth: Salivary amylase and lipase, break down starch and lipids Lysozyme is an antibacterial enzyme in mouth Parotid, sublingual, submandibular glands Teeth Canines o Sharp tear flesh Molars and premolars o Broad grind Incisors o Straight sharp edge scissorslike cutting Taste buds recover about every 10 days Pharynx Glottis (windpipe opening) Esophagus food tube
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