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CHEM 0110 Chapter 1-5

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University of Pittsburgh
CHEM 0110

Chemistry Chapter 1-4 Review Exam 1 10/9/2012 9:25:00 PM SigFigs Basic units of measurement  Meter  Kilograms  Second  Kelvin  Values o Kilo 1000 o Deci .1 o Centi .01 o Milli .001 o Micro .000001 o 1 lb = 454 g o 1 in = 2.54 cm o 1 km = 1000 m o 1 m = 1000 mm o 100 cm = 1 m o 10 cm = 1 in o 1 mL = 1 cm^3 Derived  Results in results of other units o In x in x in = in^3 o V = lwh Density  Derived unit  D = m/v  g/mL ; g/cm^3  D water = 1.00 g/mL  An object with less density than another will float o Water and wood Mass  Measure of the quantity of matter within and ovject  Gravitational pull on that matter  Weight depends on gravitational pull while mass does not Matter  Everything is made of matter o Something that has mass and takes up space  Atoms  Subatomic particles that are building blocks of matter  States of matter o Gas, liquid and solid  Liquids o have a fixed volume because atoms of molecules are close together and assume the shape of a given container o have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape  Solids o have a fixed volume and a fixed shape o crystalline solid  arranged in a pattern in repeating order  diamond and salt o amorphous solid  atoms or molecules that do not have a long range order  rubber, glass, plastic  Gas o Separated by large distance o Not in contact with one another so they are compressible o Assume the shape and volume of their container  Atoms are bonded together to form molecules  Some matter is made of one type of molecule and one type of atom Classifying matter according to its composition  Elements, compounds and mixtures  Pure substance o Only composed of one atom or molecule  Mixture o Composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions  Element o A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substance o All in the periodic table  Compounds o A pure substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed definite proportion  Water, table salt, and sugar o Can be decomposed o Chemically bonded  Mixture o Composed of different substances that are not chemicallt united but mixed together o Heterogeneous  Water and oil o Homogeneous  Sweetened tea  Can dissolve Physical and Chemical properties  Physical o One that a substance displayes without changing its composition o Odor, color, boiling point of water, change of state  Chemical o Substance displays only through changing its composition o Flammability, rusting o Results in a completely new substance Conservation of Mass  Mass cannot be created or
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