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CHEM 0110 Chapter 5

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CHEM 0110
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Chemistry Chapter 5 10/8/2012 9:50:00 PM Law of constant composition  All samples of a given element have the same proportions of their constituent elements o H2O  8:1 ratio o divide the larger amount my the smaller sample Chemical formulas  Usually list the most metallic element first  In compounds that do not have a metal, the one closest to the metals us named first  Metals on the left  Nonmetals on the right Polyatomic Ions  Act as a unit  Have a charge associated with them  Held within parenthesis Types Of Chemical Formulas  Empirical o Gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of element in a compound  HO (hydrogen peroxide)  Molecular o Gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound  H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)  Structural Use lines to represent chemical bonds and shows how the atoms are connected to each other  H-O-O-H Atomic elements  Atoms that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units Molecular Elements  Do not usual exist with single atoms as their basic units  Diatomic molecules o Two of the atoms bonded together  O2, H2, Cl2  Table 5.2 in book Molecular Compounds  Compounds formed from two or more nonmetals Ionic Compounds  Contains one or more cations paired with one or more anions  Usually cations are metals and anions are nonmetals  Electron transfer=ionic  Always contain positive and negative ions  Negative charges must equal positive charges Nomenclature: Naming Compounds  System of naming compounds  Common o H2O water o H2O2 hydrogen peroxide o NH3 ammonium o CH4 methane o N2O laughing gas Naming Ionic Compounds  Formula o Metal + Nonmetal  Metal forms only one type of ion or metal that forms more than one type of ion o Some metals that form different types of ions  Chromium, iron, cobalt, copper, tin, mercury, lead o Sometimes found in transition metals  Zn and Ag have one ion  Pb and Sn multiple ions Naming Binary Ionic Compounds  Contain only two different elements  Formula o Name of cation (metal) + base name of anion-IDE Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Type of Cation  Cation forms more than one ion  Formula o Name of Cation (metal) (charge of cation in roman numerals) + Base name of anion (nonmetal)+IDE  Determine the charge from the formula Naming Ionic Compounds Con
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