HAA 0010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Ergotism, Kachina, Polyptych

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15 Mar 2015
School
Course
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February 23
Art and the Sacred: Objects and Rituals
split of the Roman Empire
osplit in 395
oone part centered in Constantinople
Byzantine Empire
thought of as a direct descendent of Roman Empire
Constantinople is the new Rome
Eastern Orthodoxy centered in Constantinople
Icons: from Greek “eikones”
oactive images that allow you to talk directly to the saint/spirit/figure
oimages are very powerful
Archeiropoieta: icons not made by human hands
oVirgin Hodegetria: “She Who Shows the Way”
first made by Saint Luke from life
not a piece of art, but an actual image
came with miraculous creation story
hard to distinguish between idolatry and iconography
ohave to view it as a medium, not the actual figure
ogave it a uniform style
holiness of original image can be transferred by copying
artists are not supposed to leave their mark
Christ Pantocater Icon
means Christ the Almighty
oall powerful judge of humanity
encaustic on panel
oused in Roman-Egyptian mummy portraits
ocolored beeswax heated and applied to medium to work a texture into the object
beard references the power of Zeus
focus on eyes: window to the soul
ogives the viewer a direct connection to Jesus
Iconoclasm
destruction of images
images are too powerful and it’s bad to used them
thought that god favored the Muslims, who conquered the Christians, because they didn’t use icons
Empress Theodora led to Triumph of Orthodoxy, allowing for images to exist again
Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy
focuses not on naturalism, but on other messages
hierarchical registers
uses gold leaf on tempura, because encaustic technique was lost following the Iconoclasm
oHodegetria being worshipped
Byzantine Empire fell, but Orthodoxy continued
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