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HIST 1610 (1)
Lecture 12

HIST 1610 Lecture 12: Hist 1610 Class Notes

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University of Pittsburgh
HIST 1610
Randy Smith

Video notes 1. Hudson was the first to discover the harbor- he himself couldn’t fathom it 2. NY was founded by Dutch to establish trading posts to make money 3. 1624- Dutch 4. More has happened in NY than Philadelphia or other cities 5. NY was fastest growing city in the world 6. Lenape met the Dutch and tried to keep the peace 7. Dutch East India Company a. One of the most successful enterprises in the world 8. The Bronck’s→ Bronx 9. Slaves were put to work to clear land 10.Problems from the start 11.2nd rank operations 12.Year of the Blood 13.Peter Stuyvesant- had orders to clean the place a. In a short time, put in roads, windmills, houses and schools b. Built river to keep out English and hostile Indians c. However, many became too diverse to rule 14.1654- First Roshana service in New Amsterdam a. Beginning of church and state in America 15.1664- New Amsterdam officially named New York after Duke of York, brother of King Charles 16.Lord Cornbury wanted to dress like his Aunt 17.Demand for slaves grew 18.New Yorkers feared slave uprisings and revolts 19.1758- 25,000 British troops in America a. Need food, clothing, shelter 20.1763- Depression Lecture Notes 1. New York becomes powerful→ overpowers Boston→ rivalries begin 2. NY Harbor is key because it connects to Hudson River 3. Physical setting of NY is very important 4. What makes a powerful country? a. Building, technology→ textile industry i. TEXTILES: sold around the world ii. Maritime capabilities- need capital iii. Need central bank for monarchs to get capital from colonies b. Banking i. Financial capital ii. Coffeehouse brokers iii. Organization of capital 5. Dutch West India Company a. Private Corporation b. “Little Brother” to Dutch East India Company c. Had posts everywhere to trade 6. Real Estate Deal 7. Dutch→ calvinists like the Pilgrims a. There to make money. b. Felt threatened by the presence of the Jews 8. Disease dwindled Indian population 9. Indian Wars a. Caused problems 10.Colonies in 1650’s 1660’s a. Boom town, some settlers but few from Holland actually wanted to come to New Amsterdam b. Those who had money wanted to settle in the islands→ better climate, more money, easier living c. Shortage of labor→ why slavery was so popular i. Led to racism and prejudice d. Drinking was only past time along with fighting 11.Wild West was a brutal place a. Stuyvesant brought in to whip them into shape (John Smith 2.0) i. Imported slaves to help with labor shortage ii. Outlaws drinking on Sundays to make them go to church iii. No knife-fighting in public 12.Slavery in VA started as indentured servants a. Any amount of black blood i. Couldn’t vote, serve on jury, own firearm, own property ii. Passed on, could be born into child but children born from indentured servants were free 13.NY didn’t have large plantations a. Used slaves for infrastructure to expand the city contrasted with their work in agriculture in the south 14.Ships that came into New York Harbor could get close to the shore English Revolution 1. 1629- Dissolves Parliament 2. 1630- settle in MA Bay Colony a. 11 Years of Tyranny- King Charles- disagrees with Parliament on every level 3. Archbishop Laud a. Tried to impose Book of Common Prayer on the Scots 4. 1640- Needed money and called Parliament back into session a. They deny him money b. Short Parliament 5. Triennial Act a. Said Parliament will meet at least once every 3 years no matter what b. Broke centuries old rule that King calls it c. King is still allowed to call it but they will still meet anyways 6. Could have been prosecuted for slander against the King for treason a. On floor of Parliament- could criticize the King 7. King leaves London (mistake) but wanted to look for allies a. Finds himself up against a powerful force 8. Parliament created their own forces and get advantage because they have money 9. 1645- Parliament reorganizes military force into New Model Army (NMA) a. Bring in common people 10.Oliver Cromwell a. One of leaders of NMA b. Rather have good soldiers than high ranking noblemen 11.1648- Charles defeated- “house arrest” 12.1649- Come to conclusion that they need to bring treason charges against King a. But how can King be disloyal to his own crown? b. Convicted and sentenced to death 13.Importance of Constitution- King has limited power a. Thomas Payne during American Revolution 14.Hat tipping= respect 15.1660 16.King had monarchical power- aristocrat 17.Parliament had “democratic” power- represented select 18.Monarch= balance of the 2 19.1660- Parliament made it clear that Charles was placed on throne by Parliament, not by God, King was back a. He accepted it but deep down rejected it→ much tension b. Long run- Parliament gained a lot more power but needed stability and balance 20.1680’s- James II (brother) a. Became tyrannical b. Eventually fled England 21.1688 a. Go to Holland (no longer strong monarchical power) b. William & Mary on their throne (both grandchildren of Charles I, siblings who were married, both Protestant) 22.1688- Glorious Revolution a. End of English Revolution b. Starts in 1603 with James (beginning of troublesome period) c. Almost a whole century of constitutional problems, economical changes, changes in monarchy, turmoil d. Rebellions Wednesday February 15th 1. North and South developed differently 2. Corporate→ Company 3. Proprietary Colonies a. Proprietor- one man or small group of men who owns property (ex: William Penn) b. Responsible for developing that land with the money from the King i. Heavy responsibility 4. Royal Colonies/ Charters 5. William Penn a. Quakers i. Part of English Revolution ii. Thought there was no clergy iii. Whoever felt the grace, could preach b. Family i. Came from military family ii. Father served Cromwell and King iii. Rarely met father until 12 because he was at sea iv. Family was highly connected and military oriented c. Founded it due to wanting a refuge area for Quakers d. William Penn (Jr) i. Started as Gentryman ii. Hated authority iii. Attended Oxford at 16 iv. Clashed with authority at Oxford & father v. Father tried to beat the Quaker out of him vi. Ended up becoming manager of father’s estates and gained some business acumen 1. Brought down by lack of interest in business 2. Wrote sermons and read about quakerism instead 6. Maryland a. Started as refuge for Catholics but ending up being for Protestants 7. Fighting Protestant v Protestant a. Were fighting about business more than religion 8. Whigs a. Protestants b. 1660 c. Exclusion Crisis i. Tried to pass a bill to exclude James (Charles II brother) from throne ii. He was Catholic 9. William Penn becomes more friendly with James because he thought James & Charles would be more tolerant a. Approached Charles to find Penn’s father was owed a lot of money from the King b. Penn gained responsibility as proprietor to make land prosper 10.Quakers a. Good business people b. Many became wealthy during Restoration Era 11.They needed more settlers for all the land a. Penn put out ads to try and get people to come over to New World, Germans took interest i. Tried to peacefully get land from Native Americans 1. Sent gifts to Delaware Indians a. Shows gifter’s power and wealth and generosity as well as seriousness of negotiating 12.1682 a. Penn arrived in (now) PA b. Delawares were easy to get land from and cooperated with Penn because they needed protection from the Iroquois (and other hostile Native Americans) i. Looking to French and Dutch as allies rather than fellow Native Americans 13.Penn started to have problems with Lord Baltimore a. Political climate in England is volatile b. Penn will have political trip up regardless of what side he picks 14.1685- James II (Duke of York) a. Created Dominion of New England i. His attempt to take royal control over the colonies ii. Fear began iii. Deep into debt because he spent money developing the company iv. Forced to lease entire colony of PA for money b. Pull charters c. Openly Catholic d. Hostile towards Parliament e. Had own army 15.1688- Glorious Revolution a. James II- hated and feared by people i. Started to fear for his life and crown ii. Left England b. People were afraid of England becoming Catholic again 16.Penn was arrested and thrown into tower of London (prison) a. Because of his ties to James b. Wanted to return to PA c. After being released, he was recharged and thrown back in d. Goes into hiding 17.People wanted more control a. Proprietor vs those who wanted royalty and break away from proprietor i. People were only against royal power if it didn’t suit their own interest 18.1693- Penn is politically rehabilitated a. Allowed to return back to PA 19.1694- Officially restored a. Penn’s wife died & remarries younger woman (wealthy Quaker father) 20.Philadelphia becomes 2nd biggest port (bigger than Boston) a. Had hardcore working group of business people b. Quaker faction pushed to get more power 21.Anti-Proprietary faction a. Did same thing as Lord Baltimore b. Pushed to invalidate Penn’s charter 22.Penn a. Dies of stroke and deeply in-debt b. Only became a symbol of peace and leadership, long after his death i. During his time alive, thought he was seen as a thorn in their side, a traitor c. PA became very prosperous d. Crown wanted it so they could tax it and make it a wealthy colony Chapter 7 MPACH Essay 1 • Dutch merchants were battling the Dutch West India Company o They wanted to operate independently • Monopolies seen as feudal remnants o Modern capitalism emerging • Patroon • Institution that maintained Dutch culture • 2ndand 3 generation made their own decisions and worked to become more Americanized Essay 2 • Key groups of colonists o English, Germans, Scots-Irish • Push factors of Germany being major source of immigrants • Pull factors from William Penn and his colony o Land, opportunity • People in New World sought out people/recruits to come • Author argues that German settlers opened gate for real flow of Germans permanently • “New landers” o Went back to Germany • Authors pointed out that German indentured servitude was different from that of the time in Virginia o More flexible • “Ultimate factor of German immigration success” o Germans built an infrastructure of transportation and put up capital for helping other Germans to come over o Together, as a group, invested in the process and worked together to make it successful Class Notes • Globalization was not a new idea o Military and economic power o Demographic power • English end up controlling North America • Enclosure o Idea that public land was closed off and regulated o Privatization of public land o Created inflation o Saw the opportunity to put sheep in the land and participate in the wool market ―▯Schematic o Within privatized area, commons area ―▯Hunting for source of food, timber (fossil fuel during that time) o If they try to take the land, it is considered a violation of rights to the King ―▯They have Political rights, but not economic rights • Effect on English Revolution o Dissatisfied with the land and became radical sectarian religious groups • Beginning of strike ideology • Radical thinking and disconnection from old system in England made the English colonies really successful and ended up shaping demographics of Colonial North America Wednesday February 22 nd • What makes British North American colonies unique? o Different from French, Spanish and Dutch o High population, not clear who is going to govern the actual political apparatus ―▯Colonies will have bulk of control most of the time o 1660 stewards come back ―▯First real effort of crown trying to get control of the colonies o Crown comes back Glorious revolution of 1688 • Constantly suspicious of Crown • Abundance of land Those who had even the smallest amount of land, believed that they should have political rights to vote o “Freeman” believed that it would only remain their land if they had some control over politics • Mentality of poor still had rights of freeborn Englishmen • French, Dutch & Spanish Control of trade in Atlantic o Created an empire • Limit their ability to control the colonies • Proprietary colonies: • 1632: Moved towards toleration and wanted to created a refuge place of toleration o Not completely strict but tolerate • 1634: Maryland named after Charles wife, Mary o Most were Protestants, and drifted in from other areas to grow tobacco • Crown wanted a flow of tobacco and money • Social Structure o Top: Oligarchs o Below them: indentured servants Restoration Era • Cromwell • Call Charles back on the throne o Brede o Reassured Parliament it wasn’t a counter revolution o Charles said he wouldn’t take revenge on those who supported Revolution & parliament except those involved in prosecution and execution of his father • Executed by hanging until almost dead, sliced open, organs taken out, then cut head off • Charles understood the politics of how Parliament was responsible for putting him back on throne • Parliament gave back to Anglicanism more to prevent spread of Seculatarianism • Cavalier Parliament: new Parliament that tried to reestablish power after Revolution but not release • Bringing back feudal elements • Aware of the competitive imperial effort • Parliament dominated by elites • IMPORTANT: King needed money, land was free of feudal dues only crown land was his o He owed money and had a lot of political debt o Looked to colonies for monetary support • 1650’s/1660’s: Wars with the Dutch o Result: Navigation Acts ―▯All trade to New World had to be carried by British ships more control by British cut the Dutch out • Mercantilism: act of trading and commercialism, enterprise, • Wealth overall flows back to mother country- symbiotic relationship • No law against King being involved in trade • Trouble in New England Tourist Tip: Take Blue Line North to Maverick, eat burritos Slave Trade • Major money maker • 4 men become proprietors in Carolina, also on the board in slave trade • 1622: RAC: Renamed to Royal African Company o “buying or selling, bartering of negros…” they had a monopoly • Survival of colonies is based on slave trade, if they don’t have enough slaves or buy them at high rates, it will ruin economy of colonies • Duke’s Law pushed for religious toleration o No Christian was to be disturbed practicing, Jews weren’t included on paper but they were tolerated o PowWow: medicine men who performed Native American rituals • Religious toleration will create a stronger civil state Rhode Island was a different colony • Wanted to bring the charter back to England 1662/1663: Dutch War outbreak • Crown became more concerned with controlling the colonies and realized its importance Slave Trade • Critical because of the open land • About race but more so about labor • Colonies b
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