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History of Jazz Lecture Notes

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University of Pittsburgh
MUSIC 0711
Doretta Whalen

Modern Style of Jazz and Louis Armstrong 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM Louis Armstrong – Father of Jazz Modern Styles of Jazz: Swing (1930‟s) Bebop (fast tempo, 1940‟s) Cool Jazz (1950‟s, relaxed smoothness, mellow) Hard Bop (mid 1950‟s, dance music) Free Jazz (protest music, 1960‟s) Jazz is paperless. The music is inside. This movement was brought about by Louis Armstrong. Swing and Rhythm Umbrella 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM LECTURE #1 Definitions/Terminology: Cross-Fertilization: the coming together of West African and Western European cultures (music, art, dance, language, religion) in North America. Africanization: *Music is a dynamic aspect of culture that uses sound and time* Swing: Swing Era Style of Jazz Big Bands Dancing Swing Concept Difficult to describe and define Demonstration Beat: a steady pulse Tempo: the speed of the beat. (up-tempo, faster) Polyrhythm: a layering of rhythms; two or more rhythms at the same time. Syncopation: anticipation or delay of the beat or playing on the offbeat. Rhythm Umbrella: beat, tempo, accent, and syncopation. Theories for the Origin of the Word “Jazz”: African Word Jass, Jas, and Jaz. Jasmine JazzBo Brown (musician) Responses to Music: Physical Emotional Spiritual Cognitive LECTURE #2: Why Africa? Driving Energy of Jazz Cultural Practices Sound Recognition Classes of Musical Instruments: Chordophone Aerophone Membranophone Idiophone (percussion: strike, shake) West African vs. Western European 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM African Music: Polyrhythm Predominantly pentatonic West African Handmade instruments Music is functional Music is communal Oral culture Improvisation Holistic process Accidental harmony (natural) High noise factor Intensity factor (range of volume) Rhythm is dominant Western European: Standardized instruments High art Performer/spectator model Culture of the written word Composition Cerebral process Theoretical basis Melody is dominant New Orleans, Louisiana – Founded 1718 Cosmopolitan – people from all different nationalities living in one place Chantwell – witty musician who is able to improvise Calypso – song form led by the Chantwell Kah Iso! – crowd chanted this to encourage the Chantwell Voodoo: Mojo – an amulet that is good luck, a magical charm Strong similarities between Christianity and Voodoo: Monotheism Saints/many lesser gods Well-defined priesthood The priest has helpers Notion of sacrifice Defined state of possession Congo Square – founded 1817: African slaves gathered there to sing/dance Creole: African and French or African and Spanish Highly educated, free people “Colored Aristocracy” French and Spanish men would take African women as their mistresses Many of them had their own African slaves Jelly Roll Morton (October 20 , 1885) – creole musician, sold his soul to the devil at a young age in exchange for musical talent. Instrumentation and Creoles 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM Aesthetic – volume! Jelly Roll Morton Habanera rhythm – “the Spanish tinge” Creoles of Colour – Louisiana Purchase (1803) Frontline: Clarinet Cornet Trombone Rhythm Section: Individual drums/percussion Bass drum Snare drum Cymbals Tuba Louis Armstrong – August 4 , 1901 Poor Blacks: Economic/social status Low economic status Low social status Instruments Improvised From Pawn Shops Idiophones & aerophones Training Little to know training Not musically literate Technique Played loudly Played percussively Used blue/religious interpretations Creoles were the opposite of poor blacks. Louisiana Legislative Code 111 – 1890 Segregation Act – 1896 Cross-Fertilization – the coming together of Western European and West African cultures in North America. Cross-Fertilization and Ragtime 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM Major Points of Cross-Fertilization: The parade Congo Square (1817-1850‟s) Creoles and poor blacks (1890‟s) Storyville (1897-1917) Secret societies – fraternal unions (Zulus, Knights of Pythias, The Mystic Krewe of Comus, etc..) 1. Monthly dance, lawn fetes, picnics, provided employment to member musicians. 2. Burial insurance was provided to members. 3. Society‟s band played at members‟ funerals. 4. Sponsored float at Mardi Gras. On the way to the cemetery the band would play spirituals in the Dixieland style. RAGTIME: Newspapers and sheet music Ragtime Approach: Making variations Adding Filling in Evils of Ragtime: Thought to cause kids to run away or do dope. Ragtime and Jelly Roll Morton 11/11/2013 5:41:00 PM Features of Ragtime: Syncopation Polyrhythm Multisectional Forms Ragtime Era: 1890-1920 Birth Place of Ragtime: Sedalia, Missouri Faster Tempo More Highly Syncopated Bluesy Jelly Roll Morton (King of Ragtime): 1890-1941 Technology for Ragtime Music (1800‟s): Paper Piano Piano Roll Player Piano Piano: expensive (major investment – 50 cents down, 50 cents a month for the rest of your life), symbol of status, produces all pitches through the entire range of orchestra instrumentation, touch sensitivity, po
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