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Brain and Behavior LECTURE NOTES Part 1 - I got a 4.0 in the class

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University of Pittsburgh

TEST #1 NOTES: LECTURES 1-6 (Lecture 1) Neuroscience divided into the study of the Brain and of behavior - Brain: o neuro-anatomy (organization/structure), o neurophysiology (brain function/ interactions), o neuro-genetics (mutations  disorders…not as often talked about), o molecular biology (molecules forming neuronal elements in the brain….” “ “ “) - Behavior: a complex response to the environment through coordination o Ethology (animals o Psychology (humans ≠  Behavior response Nervous System = Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System - CNS= Brain & Spinal Cord, encased by skull and vertebrae bones - PNS= Somatic Nervous System &Autonomic Nervous System o Nerve/ neurons processes outside CNS = sensory and motor connections to skin, internal organs, and muscles (motor) Psychological functions - Perception= vision, auditory, somotosensation, olfaction, taste - Emotions/motivations - Cognition= learning, memory, language, thinking, consciousness Behaviors = localized in specific brain regions as well as product of the brain’s entire combined activity Phrenology: correlates personality/character w/ shape of the skull (no evidence, only theoretical) Ex: Einstein anterior, romantic posterior, criminal lateral People: (Localized) Franz Gall: very little experimentation, lobes grow with use and effect growth of skull (Whole) Pierre Flourens: tested Gall’s ideas  unable to correlate shape to behavior (Localized) Paul Broca: damage to frontal lobe of cerebral hemi. makes speaking impossible. (Localized) Carl Werniche: damage to posterior part of cerebral hemi. makes speech comprehension impossible. Karl Lashley: sought for brain region responsible for memory…concluding principles: Equipotentiality: All parts of Cortex contribute equally to learning; one part can substitute for another MassAction: Cortex works as a whole, performance improves when cortex is involved. Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) - Deep brain electrical stimulation during surgery. o Correlated memory with temporal lobe Brain Scan Methods: 1. PET; positron emission tomography, based on computed tomography X-ray images of the emissions of radionucleotides linked to a neurochemical. 2. fMRI- (MRI) Functional Magnetic Resonance imaging:  images blood flow (Hemodynamics) to highlight most “active” brain regions Consciousness: activation of Cortex, no specific lobe (Lecture 2) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  facilitates behavior, creates impulses for efferent nerves - nerves encased in bone o spinal cord = vertebral column, brain = skull - Brain (inside skull) is protected by the meninges. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  nerves not encased in bone - Somatic Nervous system: has cranial and spinal nerves o transmits sensation, motorizes voluntary movement Functions of NS: - sensory function: obtain/integrate info about world to CREATE ASENSORY REALITY - plasticity: ability to change physical or chemical properties/ functions to adapt to environmental change or compensate for injury o decreases with age - motor function: control movements NOT TESTED ONANATOMICAL DIRECTIONS or brain planes… Cerebrum: major forebrain structure (latin “Big Brain), has 2 identical hemi’s Has cerebral cortex- folded outer layer made of gray matter Cerebellum: involved in coordination of fine motor processes and possibly other mental ones Has cerebrellar cortex: folded outer layer made of gray matter) Brain stem: controls many autonomic functions Has midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Forebrain - End brain (main lobes o Cortex & Corpus Callosum o Limbic System: Basal Ganglia o Olfactory Bulb - Between Brain o Thalamus: secretes hormones regulating sensory input & motor output o Hypothalamus: secretes hormones for regulating many internal processes (homeostasis, hunger/thirst…control of autonomic nervous system) Midbrain o Tectum o Tegmentum Hindbrain Across Brain o Pons o Cerebellum o Medulla Oblongata -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - White Matter: subcortical cortical area….bundles of myelinated neuronal axons/fibers  Sometimes replaceable  Corpus callosum = largest white matter structure in brain Gray Matter: makes up cerebral and cerebrellar cortexes…cell bodies (have nuclei and dendrites to process information??)  NOT REPLACEABLE Myelin Sheath: fatty covering of axons…bundles of myelinated axons make up white matter…transport signals from gray matter cell bodies at the cortex  subcortical structures for processing Forebrain (FUNCTION) - End brain o Cortex: folded brain covering in humans (smooth in mice, not as smart)…extends inside hemispheres…..made of gray matter containing cell bodies for interpreting/integrating information  More folds = ^^^ intelligence  Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal lobes o Sulcus: grooves in brain matter:  Central: separates Frontal/ Parietal lobes  Lateral: separates Temporal lobe from Frontal / parietal lobe o Gyrus: small protrusion or bumps caused by folding of cerebral cortex  Precentral: fold directly before central sulcus  Postcentral: fold directly after central sulcus… o analogous the knuckles on a fist from the side o Corpus Callosum: neuronal bundle linking cerebral hemispheres.  Largest white matter structure in brain  Cut to treat severe epilepsy o Limbic System: functions in emotional/sexual behaviors as well as memory  Group of structures between cortex and brain stem - Amygdala - Hippocampus - Cingulate Cortex *above corpus allosum* o Basal ganglia- accumulations of brain matter, inside hemisphere below the cortex  Principle structures: - Striatum [“striped”] (Putamen, caudate nucleus) & Globus pollidus (inside shell): Muscle memory (automatic movements & adjustments of movements) - Nucleus accumbens: reward/ pleasure center, addiction o Olfactory bulb (forebrain, frontal lobe): smelling center 3 Types of Cortex: 1. Primary Motor Cortex (precentral gyrus in frontal lobe)…if damaged- paralysis 2. Primary (somatic, somato-) Sensory Cortex (postcentral gyrus in parietal lobe)  Auditory (hearing) – temporal lobe  Visual – occipital lobe  Gustatory and olfactory (taste/smell) inside lateral sulcus  Touch/pain/ pressure – parietal lobe 3. Association Cortex (in all lobes): 90% of all cortexes. Cortical Layers - Different layers = different cell types - Density of cells varies w/ layer - Differences in appearance relate to function - Cytoarchitectonic map- map of neocortex based on the org., structure, and distribution of the cells Lecture 3 Brainstem- starts where the spinal cord enters the brain - Produces movement - Responsible for unconscious behaviors (heartbeat, breathing etc.) o Made up of:  Diencephalon (between brain) = thalamus/ hypothalamus & pineal gland  Midbrain = tectum/ tegmentum, ventral tegmental area  Hindbrain = cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata Between brain Hypothalamus: produces hormones - Feeding/sexual/temperature regulation behavior - Vital internal behaviors  Specific nucleus for each behavior o Pineal Gland, Pituitary gland & hypothalamus = only brain structures that produce hormones Thalamus: gateway for channeling sensory info to the cortex - Visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory (NO olfaction) Pineal Gland – sleep control; secretes melatonin Mid brain Tectum (roof) = sensory processing, produces orienting movements Tegmentum (floor) = substantia nigra – “black substance” - Contains melanin; produces dopamine - Death of substantia nigra cells  no dopamine production  parkinson’s/ tourette’s Ventral tegmental area (VTA): part of addiction pathway; neurons produce dopamine Midbrain Cavity: cerebral aqueduct Hind brain Cerebellum “little brain”: controls and coordinates complex and fine movements  Size correlates directly w/ physical activeness of the species (bigger = more active Pons “bridge”: connects hemispheres of cerebellum & itself to the rest of the brain Medulla oblongata: maintains vital functions, controls breathing/heart rate 4 Brain Ventricles Ventricle- brain cavity containing Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - 2 lateral ventricles ( L & R hemi’s - 3 = between brain th - 4 = hind brain Meninges: 3 layers of protective tissue - Dura Mater: tough/fibrous (Meningitis = infection of the meninges or CSF) - Arachnoid layer: thin sheet of delicate connective tissue… as a • Buildup of pressure in meningitic layers spider’s web o Causes delirium, drowsiness, stupor - Pia mater: moderately tougher layer and even coma clinging to cortex CerebroSF: made from NaCl & other salts, fills the ventricles/circulates around CNS (brain/SC) - *Cushions the brain* Left hemi = language comprehension Association cortex located in all 4 lobes Cranial nerves: some carry sensory function/ some motor function - Facial muscles & internal organs CTLSC o Law of Bell & Magendie = dorsal: sensory…..ventral: motor Spinal cord: spinal reflex, dorsal root (sensory) - Controls motor movements Dermatone: area of skin supplied w/afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root DSVM: Dorsal sensory, Ventral  motor ANS – sympathetic = fight or flight - Parasympathetic = fight or flight (Lecture 4) Micro-anatomy of the nervous system 4 types of tissues • Epithelial: skin outer covering/mouth, stomach, guts, linings • Connective: bones, ligaments, meninges • Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac • Nervous…. All tissues formed from cells Nervous tissue: 2 types Neuronal Cells = - Excitable, AP/ impulse - Can transmit signals/communicate w/each other - Cannot be replaced but can grow/ shrink Glial Cells = - Non- excitable - Support, nurture, & protect neurons - Constantly replenish themselves Vis
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