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Lecture 12

NROSCI 0081 Lecture 12: Pharmacokinetics

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April Dukes

Lecture 12 2317 Pharmacokinetics How does your body affect a drug? Branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism ADME o Administration Oral Most common o Safe Economical o Selfadministered o Avoids discomfort and dangers of injection Most complicated way to get drug to the bloodstream o Stomachintestines liver bloodstream brain Many factors affect oral absorption: o Breakdown by stomach acid and enzymes o Movement of contents through GI tract o Blood flow to the GI tract First pass effect o Metabolism of a drug by the liver o Drug is metabolized before it gets to the bloodstream Disadvantages o Drug absorption (to bloodstream) is irregular, less predictable, and slow o Crosses many membranes to get to blood Injection Intravenous (IV) o Drug is injected directly into the bloodstream o Bypasses all the barriers to bloodstream Most accurate drug plasma levels Most rapid onset of action o Drugs that are ineffective orally may be very effective taken IV o Disadvantages Drug has to be in solution (aka liquid) Weakens veins (walls of veins may collapse) Dangerous Ex. Dirty needles bacteria, hepatitis, AIDS High risk of overdose Intramuscular (IM) o Drug is injected into muscle Has a good blood supply
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