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Lecture 20

NROSCI 0081 Lecture 20: Amphetamines

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April Dukes

Lecture 20 Stimulants: Amphetamines Sourcehistorical background o Ephedrine: from plant ma huang in China Similar properties to epinephrine (isolated in 1880s and realized in 1924) o Amphetamines 1930s1940s Synthetic amphetamines developed out of fear of ephedrine shortage Treat asthma and narcolepsy Soldiers given amphetamines to increase alertness and prevent sleep during WWII and the Gulf War still used Pharmacokinetics o Route of administration Oral Intranasal (snorted) recreational Inhalation (smokes) methamphetamine only IV o Absorption: fast even when taken orally o Slow metabolism last for a long period of time Pharmacodynamics o Block the reuptake of monoamines (like cocaine) o Cause DA to leak from vesicles and reverse DAT high concentration of dopamine in the presynaptic terminal (leaking from vesicles) causes dopamine to be released out of the DAT Amphetamine vs. Methamphetamine o The extra methyl group on meth makes meth, in comparison to amphetamine: More lipid soluble more addictive potential Low boiling point: able to be smoked Easier to cross the BBB Harder to be metabolized by MAO (monoamine oxidase) Longer halflife, faster absorption Highly addictive and dangerous Drug effects o Recreational use Euphoria Mania Hallucinations Increased motor activity Increased alertness o Medicinal Decreased fatigue in narcoleptic patients Increased attention span in ADHD o Side effects Meth mouth
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