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PHYS 0175 (1)

Chapter 21 Lecture.pdf

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PHYS 0175

Chapter 21: Schematic representations of electron orbits around Li nucleus: Electric Charge Introduction Electric charge Electric charge and the structure of matter Conductors and insulators Induced charge 1 2 Masses & charges of the particles Two important principles to from which atoms are constituted: remember: -31 -19 Conservation of charge – the algebraic Electron: m e 9.109 x 10 kg qe= - 1.602 x 10 C sum of all the electric charges in any closed system is constant Proton:: m = 11.731010 -2kg q = + 16022x 10-1C p p Quantization of charge – every observable Neutron: m n 1.675 x 10-2kg qn= 0.000 C amount of electric charge is always an integer multiple of the electron charge or the proton charge 3 4 1 Experiments showing that there are two kinds of charges: Conductors and insulators: Conductors permit electric charge to move easily. (For example: copper, silver, gold; in fact, most metals) Insulators do not permit electric charge to move easily. (For example: plastic, wood, glass; in fact, most non-metals.) In terms of the electron configuration, how do conductors and insulators differ? 5 6 Superconductors and semiconductors: Charging by Induction: Superconductors offer no resistance at all to the movement of electric charge. (Special alloys at very low temperatures.) Semiconductors allow electric charge to flow under certain conditions, sometimes in one direction but not in the opposite direction. (Insulators that are “doped” with different atoms; very important in modern electronics.) This would not work if the sphere were not a conductor! 7 8 2 Coulomb’s Law: The magnitude of the electric force between two point charges q and q that are separated 1 2 by a distance r is given by the equation: Direction of F: q1 2
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