PS 0500 World Politics 8.29 9.19.docx

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Political Science
PS 0500
Robert Atkin

PS 0500 World Politics Lecture: World Politics 8/29/12 States: sources of power  Tangibles o Military o Economic  Intangibles o Nationalism- people with strong sense of nationalism more likely to serve in military/pay taxes o International recognition o Soft power- power to attract actors to goals they want to achieve States: Examples of use of power o Waging war o Imposing sanctions o Trade tariffs o Diplomacy o Providing foreign aid Non-State Actors IGOs  Members are national governments o UN, NATO, IMF  Or regional… o Organization of American states (OAS) o African Union (AU) o Association of SE Asian Nations o Council of Europe (COE) Classification of IGOs  Universal vs. limited membership (region) o OPEC: members have to be a petroleum producing country  General vs. limited purpose (broad vs. specific) o UN: peacekeeping o OPEC: coordinating oil producing policies (environment, etc.)  Emanations- comes from an existing IGO o UN: UNICEF o OAS: American Human Rights Commission (children to parent organization)  Supranational Organizations o IGOs member states granted authority to make binding decisions without consent o Give up states’ sovereignty Examples: o UN can impose sanctions but can’t enforce anything o US can enforce o EU- euro; can’t make monetary policy - controlled by banking - court and judicial system IGOs- Sources of Power  Delegation by power states- supernational  Money/resources  Technical expertise  Legitimacy IGOs: Examples of Using Power  Peacekeeping (UN)  Resolutions  Loans to developing countries o IMF, World Bank  Setting conditions for membership o Have to reform to their standards to be a part of it  Military campaign o NATO- rely on consent of member states NGOs  Members are individual (private) or groups (member)  Over 7,000 o Greenpeace o Intl. Red Cross o Doctors w/out borders o Amnesty International NGOs: Sources of Power  No money, rely on dues/fundraising  Expertise  Information o Issuing reports  Mobilization o Petition/protest to influence policies NGOs: Examples  Amnesty International: take on powerful states on Guantanamo Bay subject…name and shame human rights violators. Condemned US government. After 9/11 everyone was fighting terror, but now Obama wants to close the prison  Greenpeace: stop French nuclear testing in South Pacific...the Rainbow warrior ship was sunk? And eventually testing stopped MNCs  Non-state  Economic enterprise with subsidiaries in over one country o Banks, company's factories outsourcing jobs o US, EU & Japan o Oil, cars, Wal-Mart MNCs: Sources of Power  Money  Countries’ need for foreign investment  Threat of exiting countries o MNC wants different policies/taxes…want to influence country MNCs: Use of Power  Create jobs  Control wages  Help/harm labor standard  Influence politics in host countries Oil companies investment choices rich in oil/experience possible civil war… Nigeria: not stable politically, but has so much oil, companies there regardless. Rebels attack oil production for revenue Lecture: World Politics 9/5/12 Understanding The International System  State  Nation  Sovereignty  Anarchy Nations & States Nation  Group of people who share sense of national identity (usually language, culture, religion)  Most identify with territorial homeland State  Territorial entity controlled by government and inhabited by a population  “States possess a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within territory” –Weder (Only state governments can use force) Nation State Subject population identifies itself as a single nation Ex. US  Different ethnicities  Having multiple ethnicities doesn’t mean it can’t be a nation state Ex. France & Belgium  France- true nation state, speak French mainly, borders coincided with state borders, early state, strong nationalism  Belgium- Binational, Speak French in South and Flemish in North, autonomous politically, cultural differences, language difference Ex. Nigeria  Not a true nation-state  Differences in religion, language, culture  North- Muslim  South- Christian  Politically salient Ex. Korea  Single nation/ 2 states  Shared ethnicities and language Importance of nations/states/ nation-states? Civil wars, nationalism, etc. State Sovereignty 1.) External Sovereignty- Independent from any authority outside one’s territory- freedom from intervention; often violated Example: Germany invading Belgium WWII US invading North Pakistan War 2008 Russia invaded Georgia 2.) Internal Sovereignty- Supreme authority over all other entities within one’s territory Example: Domestic rebel groups going against government Origins of Modern State System  During Middle Ages, Political Authority  Overlapping Loyalties o Division of religious/ secular authority o Ex. Holy Roman Empire- not efficient  30 years war o Protestants vs. Catholics  Treaty of Westphalia (1648) o “He who rules a territory determines its religion o freedom from external intervention o states formally equal State- 1 government has absolute control over entire territory Anarchy Absence of central government Changes in International System Major wars  WWI and WWII  Cold War o no physical war o 2 poles- U.S. and Soviet Union o Bi-polar Post Cold War  Unipolarity or first nonpolarity  Rise in importance of non-state actors and globalization Lecture Notes: World Politics 9/12/2012 Weaknesses of Realism  Ignores actors other than states (IOs, transnational actors, etc…don’t think they’re important  Ignores the role of domestic politics  Under-estimate the importance of economics and trade  Cannot account for cooperation between states- explains war and conflict, not coop. Liberalism: Key Points  Domestic politics matters (democracy vs. dictatorship, domestic political competition and how it could affect foreign policy)  Cooperation is in states’ self-interest  Focus on trade and international organizations/law and promote peace- think it prevents conflict and war  Emphasis on economic interactions Liberalism: Intellectual Origins John Locke- Two Treatises of Government  Human nature is reasonable and tolerant  In “state of nature”, humans can cooperate and form a civil society Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations  Rational individuals pursue their self-interest while creating wealth that benefits society  Gains from free trade benefit all- countries can be better off economically o Import goods from countries who specialize/export goods they specialize  Cooperation between states leaves all better off Immanuel
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