PS 0500 World Politics 10.29 11.5.docx

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University of Pittsburgh
Political Science
PS 0500
Daniela Donno

World Politics PS0500: Lecture Notes October 29, 2012 The United Nations  A universal organization- 193 member states  Membership implies international recognition  The closest thing to a world government? UN membership  Switzerland joined in 2002  South Sudan (most recent country to join) (2006)  Increase in membership in 1960s and 1970s  1980s- collapse of soviet union  Not sovereign states, but are seeking membership to gain international recognition o Taiwan o Kosovo UN Budget  2007: $3.79 billion  2007 peacekeeping: approximately $5 billion  In comparison… o U.S. Federal Government Budget in 2007 was $2.7 trillion o UN has a lot of responsibility in terms of peace and development but doesn’t have many resources o Viewing it as a “scary” organization isn’t exactly accurate  U.S. pays the largest share of the budget (along with other wealthier countries) UN Security Council Has not changed since 1945  5 permanent members with veto power o U.S. o Russia o China o UK o France  10 non-permanent members elected to 2 year terms  One vote per state  9 votes to pass a measure o = 5 permanent members + at least 4 non-permanent members  Should the Security Council be restructured?  Germany and Japan?  Greater representation to developing countries?  Russia and China more concerned about criticizing domestic political human rights violations than U.S.? o Don’t want to set precedent for criticizing practices that go on in their on countries because they’re both dictatorships The General Assembly  The “parliament” in the UN  One country, one vote  Approves budget  Resolutions are non-binding o Differ from security council resolutions o Don’t have force of international law o Can’t be enforced o Military actions, sanctions don’t work o Countries can speak their positions, but no impact is made o Can see global census/opinion in general assembly  North-south divide o (wealthier north vs. south developing poor)  G-77 lobbies for interests of developing countries o 130 members o 1970s and 80s- improving trade policies for developing countries Secretariat  The bureaucracy of the UN  Led by the Secretary-General (currently Ban Ki-moon of Korea) o Secretary-General has little formal power, but strong informal power on the world state UN Human Rights Council  Highlights broader weaknesses and strengths of the UN as a whole  Reports to General Assembly Powers it has:  “Naming and shaming” (like NGOs- Amnesty International  Issues non-binding resolutions  Conducts periodic reviews of all member states  Criticized for: o Lax/not strict membership policies o Disproportionate focus on Israel  Developing countries side with Palestine while U.S. sides with Israel  History of members with questionable human rights practices: o E.g. China, Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Libya Mere existence of council shows that Human Rights are important; puts it on global agenda Peace and Security  The UN was conceived as a collective security arrangement o All members agree to oppose a threat to security of any other member o Global organization that will try to prevent world from having another world war…by having other members help any other threatened member country  UN charter prohibits members from attacking other members unless in self defense (preemptive war)  Chapter 7 of UN Charter gives Security Council the authority to: o Determine the existence of a “threat to international peace” o Authorize actions to “restore international peace and security”  Identify just wars  Wars authorized by UNSC o Korean War (1950)  Russian representative was boycotting o First Gulf War (1991) o Libya (2011)  Examples of wars not authorized: o Kosovo o Afghanistan  But UN did authorize ISAF in December 2001 o Iraq 2003 **So…they don’t have any power to stop wars, even if they don’t authorize the war. UN Peacekeeping  Most peacekeepers come from developing countries  UN has no standing army  Traditional peacekeeping o Lightly armed forces monitor ceasefires once fighting has stopped o Example: UNFICYP (Cyprus)  Multidimensional peacekeeping o Post-conflict reconstruction o Election management and monitoring o Take on administrative functions of the government o Examples: UNTAC (Cambodia) UNMIH (Haiti)  Peace enforcement missions o Sent to active conflict zones o Troops can use force to restore peace o Examples: Bosnia and Somalia October 31, 2012 The European Union  Reasons: o Geopolitical  Need to prevent another major war in Europe o Economic  Functionalism- The EU’s power expands over time via processes of spillover o Solving of problems in one area creates the need for cooperation in other areas Membership  1951: West Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy  1973: UK, Ireland, Denmark  1981: Greece  1986: Spain, Portugal  1995: Austria, Finland, Sweden  2005: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus  2007: Bulgaria, Romania EU Structure  Decision- making is complex and cumbersome!  Council of the European Union o Legislative body #1 o Representatives of member states  European Parliament o Legislative body #2 o Directly elected by citizens o 785 seats o Parties cut across national lines *For most laws to be passed, these laws have to have approval of council and parliament  Heads of State o Meet twice yearly o Must approve all major decisions  European Commission o Bureaucracy of the EU o Proposes and implements legislation o Staff of about 22,000 in Brussels o 27 Commissioners (like cabinet members) appointed by member states  European Court of Justice o The EU’s Constitutional court o 27 judges, one per member state Successes and Failures  Successes o Enlargement  2005 and 2007- expanded into central eastern Europe  Milestone for EU because EU played important role in guiding these countries in locking in their economic policies and democracy o Monetary union  Euro  Less successful o Defense/Common foreign policy  A lot less cooperation because countries are wanting to make their own foreign policy decisions o Agricultural policy  French farmers get massive subsidies from EU  Other countries don’t approve because it’s not economic, fair, or efficient. But, France is a powerful member of the EU. Monetary Union  Euro introduced in 1999  Currently 17 states representing 329 million people have adopted the euro  Prior to adoption governments were required to: o Peg currencies to euro o Give up cont
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