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Lecture 9

PSY 0010 Lecture 9: Psych notes Lecture 9

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PSY 0010
Jennifer Cousins

Learning Classical, operant, observational  Learning: experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner  There are 2 main approaches to learning: o Classical conditioning: a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus evokes a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus o Operant conditioning:  Other types of learning include; observational learning and learning outside of awareness (implicit learning)  Pavlov’s Apparatus for Studying Classical Conditioning: o Interested in Physiology – especially digestion o Experimented with dogs – connect thing to them that measured their saliva  Every time it was time for the dogs to eat they would salivate  Start of classical conditioning  Elements of Classical Conditioning o 1. Before conditioning  unconditioned stimulus  unconditioned response o 2. Before conditioning  Neutral stimulus  No unconditioned response o 3. During conditioning  conditioned stimulus + unconditioned stimulus  unconditioned response o 4. After conditioning  conditioned stimulus  conditioned response  classical conditioning o Pavlov’s experiment:  Food (US)  Salivation (UR)  Food paired with a  Bell (CS)  Salivation (CR)  Not doing a new behavior, associating with something that already exists = classical conditioning o Examples:  Before you go in for a chemo treatment, they often give you a distinctive food to eat. After treatment, you can’t stand that food  Chemotherapy (US)  Nausea (UR)  Food + Chemo(CS)  Nausea (UR)  You always do your homework at your desk. After a very hard semester, you find that sitting at your desk depresses you  Stress (US)  Bad Feeling (UR)  Stress + desk (CS)  Bad Feeling (UR) Second Order Conditioning  Second Order Conditioning: Conditioning where the unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a conditioned stimulus  Extinction: the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented  Spontaneous Recovery: the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period Generalization and Discrimination:  Generalization: the conditioned response is observed even though the conditioned stimulus is slightly different  Discrimination: the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Conditioned Emotional Responses: The Case of Little Albert  Watson  Behavioristic model – nurture only  White fuzzy thing to play with – while he played the playe
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