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Lecture 3

PSY 0010 Lecture 3: Chapter 3 Neuroscience

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University of Pittsburgh
PSY 0010
Jennifer Cousins

Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 3 Neurons: The Origin of Behavior Neurons: cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform informationprocessing tasks Santiago Ramn y Cajal (18521934): rst stained neurons in the brain Components of the Neuron Cell body: the part of a neuron that coordinates informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive Dendrite: the part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body Axon: the part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands Myelin sheath: an insulating layer of fatty material Glial cells: support cells found in the nervous system Synapse: the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another The Synapse Major Types of Neurons Sensory neurons: neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord Motor neurons: neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement Interneurons: neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons Embodied Cognition Mirror neurons Neurons that re both when the animal is performing the action and when it observes another animal performing the action. Hot Science: Mirror, Mirror, in My Brain Recently, the mirror neuron system has been discovered. Mirror neurons are found in the frontal and parietal lobes and have been identied in other species in addition to humans. Mirror neurons are activated when an organism engages in a behavior or observes another engage in that behavior. They are also more highly activated when observing action within a context. Recognizing another persons goals or intentions innate empathy? The Electrochemical Actions of Neurons: Information Processing The communication of information within and between neurons proceeds in two stages:
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