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Lecture 5

PSY 0010 Lecture 5: Chapter 5 Consciousness Part Two

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PSY 0010
Jennifer Cousins

Consciousness Part Two Sleep What is Sleep? Reversible physiological state Daily rest period Time spent less responsive to external stimuli Deprivation causes a rebound Position is a factor Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind Altered state of consciousness: forms of experience that depart from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind Hypnagogic state, hynopompic state Circadian rhythm: a naturally occurring 24-hour cycle The Paradoxes of Sleep Sleep is an active process with many brain regions showing increased activity The continuity, patterning, and timing of sleep is essential to the restorative process Behaviorally, sleep requires a decrease in awareness/responsiveness Relative disconnection between neurobehavioral systems that are linked in awake state Sleep Cycle Brain shows EEG changes in beta, alpha waves, theta, and delta waves 5 stages of sleep: stages 1 – 4 and REM sleep stage REM sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity Electrooculograph (EOG): an instrument that measures eye movements Dreaming occurs most often here Body is immobilize Stages of Sleep Non-REM Stages I and II Stages III and IV – deep sleep “Quiet mind” REM Rapid-eye movements Muscle atonia (paralysis) Associated with majority of dreaming “Active mind” EEG Patterns during the Stages of Sleep Stages of Sleep During the Night Sleep Needs and Deprivation Across our lifetime, we get about one hour of sleep for every two awake. Memories deteriorate unless sleep occurs. REM sleep deprivation has the most detrimental effects, followed by slow-wave sleep (stages 3 and 4). Maturational Changes of Sleep Amount of sleep Nighttime sleep becomes lighter (less slow wave sleep), more adult like pattern of REM, more prone to external disruptions Shift in biologic timing systems—physiologic change in tendency to prefer to stay up late/sleep-in late Related to subtle changes in circadian (biologic clock): more “owl”-like tendencies Increases in daytime sleepiness Probably an increase need for sleep during puberty and adolescence Social and Environmental influences toward sleep delay Friends/socializing Access to light and stimulating activities Greater freedom to self-select bedtimes Stress/anxiety or excitement difficulty falling asleep Major circadian shift on weekends/vacation Work, Sports, Homework, Projects... The School-Sleep Squeeze Despite average school night bedtimes of 11:15 pm in high school seniors, the average wake-up time on school days is 6:15 am. Greater than 10% of US high school students must get up before 5:30 am to catch buses More than 15 % of high school students report averaging 6 or less hours of sleep per night on school days (need 8 or more) Sleepiness Tiredness (motivational changes) Lapses and performance decrements Direct effects on learning, memory consolidation Irritability, emotional lability, attention problems Difficulties with affect regulation & cognitive-emotional integration Increase use of caffeine, stimulants Negative synergy with alcohol Sleep Disorders Insomnia: difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep Sleep apnea: the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Narcolepsy: sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep paralysis: the experience of waking up unable to move Somnambulism (sleepwalking): occurs when the person arises and walks around during sleep Night terrors (sleep terrors): abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal Dyssomnias - Insomnia Most common: Trouble falling asleep and/or staying asleep Poor sleep habits Irregular sleep/wake schedule Napping on an irregular schedule Exercising close to bed Poor sleep environment light/noise Stress Sleep disorders Circadian rhythm Dyssomnias-Sleep apnea & Sleep Disordered Breathing Restricted air flow and/or brief cessations of breathing Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) – Airflow stops, but respiratory system works Central sleep apnea (CSA) – Respiratory system stops for brief periods Dyssomnia Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy Excessive daytime sleepiness Cataplexy Sudden muscle paralysis Precipitated by strong emotion Sleep paralysis REM “carryover” at sleep offset Parasomnia Sleep Disorders Somnambulism (Sleep Walking) Series of complex behaviors that occur while sleeping (stage 3 and 4). Enuresis (Bed wetting) Parasomnia Sleep Disorders Nightmares REM sleep Distressful and disturbing dream imagery Interfere with daily life functioning and interrupt sleep Night Terrors Onset during stage 3 and 4 sleep Sudden arousal from sleep that is accompanied by intense fear, includes behavioral manifestations of the fear. Sleep and Substances Alcohol: deep sleep & REM sleep Marijuana: deep sleep & awakenings Narcotics: sleep Stimulants: sleep: difficult rebound Caffeine & Nicotine: sleep & sleep disturbances LSD: early REM & restlessness, deep sleep Dreams There are five major characteristics that distinguish dreaming from waking consciousness: 1 Intense emotion 2 illogical thought 3 meaningful sensation 4 uncritical acceptance 5 difficulty remembering Dreams Freudian Theory Manifest content: a dream’s apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent content: a dream’s true underlying meaning Dreams may represent wishes, suppressed thoughts, or random activity. Activation-synthesis model: the theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep BrainActivation and Deactivation During REM Sleep
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