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Lecture

Topic 9: Personality

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 0010
Professor
Allan Zuckoff
Semester
Spring

Description
PSY 0010 notes – Personality – page 1 Personality development Biological approach • researchers distinguish between shared and non­shared environments o to what extent does being raised in the same environment as another  person make it likely that the two will grow up with similar personality? o answer: not much  identical twins raised apart just as similar as identical twins raised  together  adoptive siblings have minimal similarity as well o similarities of personality among siblings mostly a result of shared genes • non­shared environment and personality o experiences that make children in the same family different from each  other are influential on personality  birth order • consistent differences in personality between firstborns and  other siblings  peer and school experiences  changes in parenting styles • determining the genetic influence on personality o twin studies: estimate that personality characteristics 40­60% heritable o quantitative trait loci approach: identifying genetic markers for specific  personality characteristics o longitudinal study: assess individuals from infancy into adulthood to  identify maturational personality patterns  outcome: understanding of temperament • temperament o inherited pattern of personality that appears early in development and  remains stable throughout life o first attempt at temperament study: Thomas & Chess  had mothers come in and fill out questionnaires about their babies’  behavior  as they grew up, ‘uninhibited’ babies at risk for impulsivity, risk­ seeking, etc. Attachment and personality • Konrad Lorenz: imprinting o imprint for proximity and survival o goslings follow around any large moving object during the hours  immediately after hatching o evolutionary adaptation – those that stay close to mother’s protection more  likely to survive • John Bowlby o proximity and survival o secure base – attachment figure becomes base for exploration o separation – protest, despair, detachment PSY 0010 notes – Personality – page 2  when prematurely detached from parent, go through above  sequence of responses • Mary Ainsworth o strange situation  stranger anxiety develops 6­8 mos. and disappears after 15 mos.   universal  different babies reacted differently o styles of attachment  secure attachment (~60%) • upset when mother leaves, calms quickly upon reunion • in early childhood: enthusiastic, self­reliant, socially  competent, persistent  avoidant attachment (15­20%) • indifferent/unhappy when mother leaves, indifferent upon  reunion  anxious­ambivalent attachment (15­20%) • panics when mother leaves, angry/clingy upon reunion  later researchers found fourth pattern: disorganized attachment (5­ 10%) • inconsistent when mother leaves, dazed/confused upon  return  ALL insecure attachments • in early childhood: unenthusiastic, easily frustrated,  socially incompetent  o what influences attachment styles?  maternal behavior – available, sensitive, reliable parenting  associated with sec
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